Born: May 23, 1945, Newport News, Virginia, U.S.A. 


Undergraduate: University of Georgia, Athens, B.S. in Zoology, 1966

Graduate: University of Texas, Austin, M.A. in Zoology, minor in Psychology, 1968; Ph.D. in Zoology, 1970 (Supervisor: W. Frank Blair)

Postdoctoral: Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., Research Associate of R.R.

Capranica, 1970-1971

Academic appointments

Research Associate (R.R. Capranica), Section of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1970 - 1971

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia

Assistant Professor, 1971

Associate Professor, 1977

Professor, 1981

Curators' Professor, 1994

Thomas Jefferson Professor, 2012

Courtesy appointments

Australia: Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, 1981, 1984, 1990 Department of Zoology (Distinguished Visiting Scholar), University of Western Australia, 1996 - 1997

Austria: Zoological Institute, University of Vienna, Austria, 1984

Germany: Zoological Institute, University of Bonn, 1978

Department of Neuroethology & Biocybernetics, University of Kassel, 1979

Department of Zoology, Ruhr University, 1980


Cornell University: Animal Communication laboratory

University of Vienna: Bioacoustics

University of Missouri: Introductory Biology, Introductory Biology for majors, Behavioral Biology; Animal Communication; Sociobiology; Herpetology; Speciation (Co-developed Behavioral Biology, Animal Communication & Sociobiology)

Professional service

Secretary, International Society for Neuroethology, 1984 - 1987

Editorial Board, Animal Behaviour, 1982 - 1991

Associate Editor, Herpetologica, 1990 - 1993

Editorial Board, Bioacoustics, 1987 - present

National Science Foundation Panel: Animal Behavior & Learning 1989 - 1991, 2011

Research Board, University of Missouri, 1994 - 1996

Treasurer, International Society for Behavioral Ecology, 1994 - 2000

Editor, Animal Behaviour, 2002 - 2005

Research support

Previous Extramural Funding

National Science Foundation: Continuous funding since 1973

National Institutes of Health Research Career Development Award 1977 - 1982

National Institutes of Mental Health Research Scientist Development Award 1989-1994.

National Institutes of Mental Health Research Scientist Award 1995-1999

National Geographic Society

Australian Research Council (Co-PI: G.F. Watson, University of Melbourne)

National Science Foundation - Dissertation Improvement Grants - former graduate students (Bee, Marshall, Humfeld, Rivera-Martinez)

Current Extramural Funding

National Science Foundation "Basic Mechanisms and Evolution of Acoustic Communication"
($ 400,000), 2010-2013

National Science Foundation - Dissertation Improvement Grant - Michael Reichert

Major invited talks

Plenary Sessions: International Ethological Conferences 1983, 1987, 1993, 2009;International Bioacoustics Conference, 2009; World Congress of Herpetology, 1997; Australian Society Evolution 2005; Distinguished Herpetologist Lecture, 2006; Fellows Lecture, Animal Behavior Society, 2006; MacArthur Lecture, Indiana State University, 2011

Other talks

Symposium: Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms of Communication: Honoring Peter R. Marler, Davis, California, 1997

Keynote Speaker, Nebraska Behavioral Biology Group, Lincoln,1997

Symposium: Acoustic Communication in Frogs: Honoring A. S. Rand, Guelph, Ontario, 1998

Symposium: Evolutionary Diversification: Insights from Studies of Geographical Variation and Hybridization, Columbia, MO, 1999

Symposium: Female Preference Functions. Animal Behavior Society, Corvallis, Oregon, 2001

Symposium: Robert Jaeger symposium. American Society Ichthyology & Herpetology, Kansas City, Missouri, 2002

Symposium: Animal Communication. Animal Behavior Society, Bloomington, Indiana, 2002

Main Speaker: Chilean Ethological Society, Santiago, Chile, 2002

Symposium honoring Robert Capranica, Pan-American Acoustical Society of America, Cancun, Mexico, 2002

Symposium honoring Hugh Dingle, Animal Behavior Society, Boise, Idaho, 2003.

Symposium on geographic variation in behavior, Animal Behavior Society & International Ethological Society joint meeting, Bloomington, IN, 2011

Invited seminars: universities and institutes

Africa: University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1997

Australia: Australian National,1981; Macquarie, 1997; Melbourne, 1981, 1984, 1990; Monash, 1981, 1984, 1990, 2005, 2010; Western Australia, 1990, 1996, 2010; Queensland, 1990

Austria: Karl-Franzens, Graz, 1995; Vienna, 1995

Denmark: Odense, 1984

England: Cambridge, 1984; Open, 1984; Oxford, 1979, 1984; Sussex, 1984

Germany: Bonn, 1978; Erlangen, 1984, 1995; Freiburg, 1979; JW Goethe (Frankfurt), 1984, 1995; Cologne, 1995; Humboldt (Berlin), 1995; Kassel, 1978, 1979; Konstanz, 1979; Leipzig, 1995; Munich, 1984; Max-Planck-Inst. f. Verhaltensphysiologie (Seewiesen), 1979, 1983, 1995; Ruhr, 1978; Technical University (Munich), 1995; Ulm, 1995; Würzburg, 1995

Italy: Turin, 1984, 1996

Netherlands: Catholic (Nijmegen), 1984

New Zealand: Auckland, 1984; Victoria (Wellington), 1984

Spain: National Museum of Science, Madrid, 1993

Sweden: Stockholm, 1992

United States & Canada: Brock, Ontario, 1992; Calif., Davis, 1990; Calif., Los Angeles, 1990; Calif., Santa Barbara, 1994; Calif., San Diego, 1994; Calif. Inst. Tech., 1983, 1990; Chicago, 1977, 1988; Colorado, 1980; Creighton, 1997; Columbia, 2004; Cornell, 1977, 2004; Florida International, 2007; Guelph, 1977; Haskins Indian University, 2006; Illinois, 1981; Indiana, 1992; Indiana State, 2011; Kansas, 1983, 1991; McGill, 1995; Missouri, St. Louis, 1979,1987,1999; North Carolina,1980, 2006; North Carolina State, 1999; Miami, 2000, 2011; Ohio State, 1993; Oklahoma, 1980; Oklahoma State, 1987; Oregon, 1983; Oregon State, 2001; Pittsburgh, 1990; Princeton, 1976, 1983, 1994; Purdue, 1991, 2003; Rockefeller, 1976; St. Louis, 1977; San Diego State, 1983; Savannah River Ecology Lab, 1979; Simon Fraser, 1997; Toronto (Erindale), 1998; Stanford,1983; Tennessee, 1989; Texas, 1978, 2000; Tulsa, 2001; Vanderbilt, 2004; Vancouver, 1993; Washington (St. Louis), 1975, 1986, 1991; Woods Hole, 1981


  • Career Development and Research Scientist Awards - three 5-year awards Elected Fellow, Animal Behavior Society, 1991
  • Presidential Award for Research and Creativity, University of Missouri,1992
  • Senior Humboldt Fellow, 1995
  • Elected Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998
  • Frank Beach Award (with Mark Bee) for best paper in Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2001
  • Quest Award: Animal Behavior Society "for seminal research on the neurobiological control and evolution of acoustic communication and sexual selection in frogs.", 2005
  • Distinguished Herpetologist Award: American Society of Ichthylogists and Herpetologists, 2006


bolded: graduate student
underlined: postdoctoral associate
underlined, bolded: undergrad

  • Martof, B.S., and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1965. Observations on geographical variation in Ambystoma cingulatum. Copeia 1965: 342-346. 
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1973. Reproductive interactions between Hyla crucifer and Pseudacris ornata (Anura: Hylidae). American Midland Naturalist 89: 81-88.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1974. Mating call differences between eastern and western populations of the treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis. Copeia 1974: 534-536.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1974. Behavioral isolation of the treefrog Hyla cinerea and Hyla andersonii. American Midland Naturalist 91: 424-433.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1974. Vocalizations of some hybrid treefrogs: acoustic and behavioral analyses. Behaviour 49: 130-151.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1974. The significance of some spectral features in mating call recognition in the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea). Journal of Experimental Biology 61: 229- 241.
  • Oldham, R.S. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1975. Behavioral isolation of the treefrogs Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa. Copeia 1975: 223-231.
  • Gerhardt, H.C.1975. Sound pressure levels and radiation patterns of the vocalizations of some North American frogs and toads. Journal of Comparative Physiology 102:1-12.
  • Feng, A.S., Gerhardt, H.C., and Capranica, R.R.. 1976. Sound localization behavior in the green and barking treefrogs. Journal of Comparative Physiology 107:241-252.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1976. Significance of two frequency bands in long distance vocal communication in the green treefrog. Nature (London) 261:692-694
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1978. Temperature coupling in the vocal communication system of the gray treefrog Hyla versicolor. Science 199:992-994.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1978. Discrimination of intermediate sounds in a synthetic call continuum by female green treefrogs. Science 199: 1089-1091.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1978. Mating call recognition in the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea): significance of some fine-temporal properties. Journal of Experimental Biology 74:59-73.
  • Perrill, S.A., Gerhardt, H.C. and Daniel, R.. 1978. Sexual parasitism in the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea). Science 200:1179-1180.
  • Rheinlaender, J., Gerhardt, H.C., D. Yager, and Capranica, R.R.. 1979. Accuracy of phonotaxis in the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea). Journal of Comparative Physiology 133:247-255
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Mudry, K.M. 1980. Temperature effects on frequency preferences and mating call frequencies in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea (Anura: Hylidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology 137:1-6.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Schneider, H.. 1980. Mating call discrimination by females of the treefrog Hyla meridionalis. Behavioural Processes 5: 143-149.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Rheinlaender, J.. 1980. Accuracy of sound localization in a miniature dendrobatid frog. Die Naturwissenschaften 67:362-363.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Guttman, S.I., and Karlin, A.. 1980. Natural hybrids between Hyla cinerea and Hyla gratiosa: morphology, vocalization and electrophoretic analysis. Copeia 1980: 577-584.
  • Ehret, G. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1980. Auditory masking and effects of noise on responses of the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea) to synthetic mating calls. Journal of Comparative Physiology 141: 13-18.
  • Gerhardt, H. C. 1981. Mating call recognition in the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea): importance of two frequency bands as a function of sound pressure level. Journal of Comparative Physiology 144: 9-16.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1981. Mating call recognition in the barking treefrog (Hyla gratiosa): responses to synthetic calls and comparisons with Hyla cinerea. Journal of Comparative Physiology 144:17-25.
  • Rheinlaender, J., Walkowiak, W. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1981. Directional hearing in the green treefrog: a variable mechanism? Die Naturwissenschaften 67:430-431.
  • Perrill, S.A., Gerhardt, H.C. and Daniel, R.E.. 1982. Mating strategy in male green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea): an experimental study. Animal Behaviour 30: 43-48.
  • Gerhardt, H.C.. 1982. Sound pattern recognition in some North American treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae): implications for mate choice. American Zoologist 22: 581- 595.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Rheinlaender, J.. 1982. Localization of an elevated sound source by the green treefrog. Science 217: 663-664.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1983. Communication and the environment. In: Communication and Social
  • Interactions (Halliday, T. and P. Slater, eds), pp. 82-113. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp. 82-113.
  • Doherty, J.A. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1983. Hybrid treefrogs: vocalizations of males and selective phonotaxis of females. Science 220: 82-113.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1983. Acoustic communication in treefrogs. Proceedings of the German Zoological Society 1983: 25-35.
  • Doherty, J.A. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1984. Evolutionary and neurobiological implications of selective phonotaxis in the spring peeper (Hyla crucifer). Animal Behaviour 32: 875-881
  • Doherty, J.A. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1984. Acoustic communication in hybrid treefrogs: sound production by males and selective phonotaxis of females. Journal of Comparative Physiology 154: 319-330.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1986. Recognition of spectral patterns in the green treefrog: neurobiology and evolution. Experimental Biology 45: 167-178.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1986. Frog chorus: vocal communication in frogs and toads. In The Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (Halliday, T.R. and Adler, K., eds), pp. 58-59. NY: Facts on File Inc.
  • Klump, G.M. and Gerhardt, H.C. 1987. Use of non-arbitrary acoustic criteria in mate choice by female gray tree frogs. Nature (London) 326:286-288.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1987. Evolutionary and neurobiological implications of selective phonotaxis in the green treefrog, Hyla cinerea. Animal Behaviour 35: 1479-1489.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Daniel, R.E., Perrill, S.A. and Schramm, S.. 1987. Mating behaviour and male mating success in the green treefrog. Animal Behaviour 35: 1490-1503.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1988. Acoustic properties used in call recognition by frogs and toads. In: The Evolution of the Amphibian Auditory System. (Fritzsch, B., Hethington, T., Ryan, M., Wilczynski, W. and Walkowiak, W., eds), pp. 455-483. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Doherty, J.A.. 1988. Acoustic communication in the gray treefrog, Hyla versi"margin: 0cm -12.3pt 0.0001pt 0.6pt;">
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Davis, M.S.. 1988. Variation in the coding of species identity in the advertisement calls of Litoria verreauxi (Anura: Hylidae). Evolution 42: 556-565.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Klump, G.M.. 1988. Masking of acoustic signals by the chorus background noise in the green tree frog: a limitation on mate choice. Animal Behaviour 36: 1247-1249.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and G.M. Klump. 1988. Phonotactic responses and selectivity of barking treefrogs (Hyla gratiosa) to chorus sounds. Journal of Comparative Physiology 163: 795-802.
  • Klump, G.M. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1989. Sound localization in the barking treefrog (Hyla gratiosa). Die Naturwissenschaften 76: 35-37.
  • Gerhardt, H.C.. 1989. Acoustic pattern recognition in anuran amphibians. In: The Comparative Psychology of Complex Acoustic Perception. (S. Hulse & R. Dooling (eds), pp. 175 - 197. Baltimore: Erlbaum Publ. Co.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Diekamp, B.M. and Ptacek, M.. 1989. Inter-male spacing in choruses of the spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer. Animal Behaviour 38: 1012-1024.
  • Schwartz, J.J.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1989. Spatially-mediated release from masking in an anuran amphibian. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 166: 37-41.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Allan, S. and Schwartz, J.J..1990. Female green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) do not selectively respond to signals with a harmonic structure in noise. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 166: 791-794.
  • Hausfater, G., Gerhardt, H.C. and Klump, G. M.. 1990. Parasites and mate choice in gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor. American Zoologist 30: 299-311.
  • Jørgensen, M. B. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1991. Directional hearing in the gray treefrog Hyla versicolor: eardrum vibrations and phonotaxis. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 169: 177-183.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1991. Female mate choice in treefrogs: static and dynamic acoustic criteria. Animal Behaviour 42: 615-635.
  • McGregor, P.K., Catchpole, C.K., Dabelsteen, T., Falls, J.B., Fusani, L., Gerhardt, H.C., Gilbert, F., Horn, A.G., Klump, G.M., Kroodsma, D.E., Lambrechts, M.M., McComb, K.E., Nelson, D.A., Pepperberg, I.M., Ratcliffe, L., Searcy, W.A. and Weary, D.M. 1992. Design of playback experiments: the Thornbridge Hall consensus. In: Playback and Studies of Animal Communication: Problems and Prospects. NATO Advanced Research Workshop (P. MacGregor ed.), pp. 1-9, N.Y.: Plenum Press.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1992. Conducting playback experiments and interpreting their results. In: Playback and Studies of Animal Communication: Problems and Prospects. NATO Advanced Research Workshop (P. MacGregor ed.), pp. 59-77, N.Y.: Plenum Press.
  • Klump, G.M. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1992. Mechanisms and function of call-timing in male-male interactions in frogs. In: Playback and Studies of Animal Communication:Problems and Prospects. NATO Advanced Research Workshop (P. MacGregor, ed.), pp 153-174. N.Y.: Plenum Press
  • Diekamp, B.M. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1992. Midbrain auditory sensitivity in the spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer): correlations with behavioral studies. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 171: 245-250.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1992. Multiple messages in acoustic signals. Seminars in the Neurosciences 4: 391-400.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1993. Multiple causation of the evolution of acoustic signals used in courtship. Etología 1993 (3): 175-193. Appeared in 1994.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Ptacek, M. B., Barnett, L., and Torke, K.G.. 1994. Hybridization between the diploid-tetraploid treefrogs Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor. Copeia 1994: 51-59.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1994. Reproductive character displacement of female mate choice in the grey treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis. Animal Behaviour 47: 959-969.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Dyson, M. L., Tanner, S. D. and Murphy, C.G.. 1994. Female treefrogs do not avoid heterospecific calls during phonotactic approaches to conspecific calls: implications for mechanisms of mate choice. Animal Behaviour 47: 1323-1332.
  • Breden, F., Gerhardt, H. C., and Butlin, R.K.. 1994. Female choice and genetic correlations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 343.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1994. Evolution of vocalization in frogs and toads. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 25: 293-324.
  • Ptacek, M.B., Gerhardt, H.C. and Sage, R.D.. 1994. Speciation by polyploidy and multiple origins of the tetraploid gray treefrog Hyla versicolor. Evolution 48: 898-908.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1994. Selective responsiveness to long-range acoustic signals in insects and anurans. American Zoologist 34: 706-714.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1995. Phonotaxis in female frogs and toads: execution and design of experiments. In: Animal Psychophysics: Design and Conduct of Sensory Experiments (G. M. Klump, R.R. Dooling, R.R. Fay & W.C. Stebbins, eds.)., pp. 209-220. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Schwartz, J.J.. 1995. Interspecific interactions in anuran courtship. In: Amphibian Biology: Social Behaviour (H. Heatwole & B.K. Sullivan, Eds.), pp. 603-632. Chipping-Norton (Sydney): Surrey Beatty & Sons.
  • Diekamp, B.M. and Gerhardt, H.C. 1995. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies of acoustic communication in the gray treefrog Hyla versicolor. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 177: 173-190.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Watson, G.F.. 1995. Within-male variability in call properties and female choice in the grey treefrog. Animal Behaviour 50: 1187-1191.
  • Schwartz, J.J.and Gerhardt, H.C..1995. Directionality of the auditory system and call pattern discrimination during acoustic interference in the gray treefrog Hyla versicolor. Auditory Neuroscience 1: 195-206.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Dyson, M.L., and Tanner, S.D.. 1996. Dynamic properties of the advertisement calls of gray treefrogs: patterns of variability and female choice. Behavioral Ecology 7: 7-18.
  • Murphy, C.G. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1996. Evaluating experimental designs for determining mate choice: the effect of amplexus on mate choice by barking treefrogs. Animal Behaviour 51: 881-890.
  • Watson, G.F. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1997. The breeding biology and advertisement call of Litoria splendida Tyler, Davies and Martin. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 121: 119-124.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1998. Acoustic signals of animals: field measurements, recording, analysis and description. In: Techniques in the Study of Animal Communication by Sound (Hopp, S. & M. Owren, eds.), pp. 1-25. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
  • Schwartz, J.J. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1998. The neuroethology of call preferences in the spring peeper. Animal Behaviour 56: 55-69.
  • Welch, A. M., Semlitsch, R.D., and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1998. Call duration as an indicator of genetic quality in male gray treefrogs. Science 280: 1928-1930.
  • Welch, A. M., Semlitsch, R.D. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1998. The handy-dandy kitchen device-Response. Science 282: 1994.
  • Walkowiak, W., Berlinger, M., Schul, J. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 1999. Significance of forebrain structures in acoustically guided behavior in anurans. European Journal of Morphology 37: 116-120.
  • Krenz, J., Semlitsch, R.D., Gerhardt, H.C. and Mahoney, P.A.. 1999. Isolation and characterization of simple sequence repeat loci in the gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. Genome 42: 1-6.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Schul, J.. 1999. A quantitative analysis of behavioral selectivity for pulse-rise time in the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 185: 33-40.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 1999. Reproductive character displacement and other sources of environmental selection on acoustic communication systems. In: The Design of Animal Communication (Hauser, M. and M. Konishi, eds.), pp. 515-534. Cambridge: MIT Press
  • Murphy, C.G. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2000. Preference functions of individual female barking treefrogs, Hyla gratiosa. Evolution 54: 660-669.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Roberts, J.D., Bee, M.A. and Schwartz, J.J.. 2000. Call matching in the quacking frog (Crinia georgiana). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48: 243-251.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Tanner, S.D., Corrigan, C.M. and Walton, H. C.. 2000. Female preference functions based on call duration in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor). Behavioral Ecology 11: 663-669.
  • Bee, M.A., Kozich, C.E., Blackwell, K.J. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2001. Individual variation in advertisement calls of territorial male green frogs, Rana clamitans: implications for individual discrimination. Ethology 107: 1-21.
  • Keller, M. D.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2001. Polyploidy affects call structure in gray treefrogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London), Series B 268: 341-345.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2001. Acoustic communication in two groups of closely related treefrogs. Advances in Behavioral Biology (Slater, P.J.B., Rosenblatt, J.S., Snowdon, C.T. and T. J. Roper, eds.), pp. 99-167. New York: Academic Press.
  • Bee, M. A.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2001. Habituation as a mechanism of reduced aggression between neighboring territorial male bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 115: 68-82.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Schwartz, J.J.. 2001. Auditory tuning and frequency preferences in anurans. In: Anuran Communication (Ryan, M.J., ed), pp. 73-85. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2001. Acoustic communication in frogs and toads. In: Model Systems in Behavioral Ecology (Dugatkin, L., ed.), pp. 169-190. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Schwartz, J.J., Buchanan, B.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2001. Female mate choice in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) in three experimental environments. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 49: 443-455.
  • Bee, M.A.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2001. Individual discrimination by territorial male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): I. Individual variation in advertisement calls. Animal Behaviour 62: 1129-1140.
  • Bee, M.A.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2001. Individual discrimination by territorial male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): II. Perceptual mechanisms. Animal Behaviour 62: 1141-1150.
  • Bush, S.L., Gerhardt, H.C. and Schul, J.. 2002. Pattern recognition and call preferences in treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae): a quantitative analysis using a no-choice paradigm. Animal Behaviour 63: 7-14.
  • Bee, M.A.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2002. Individual voice recognition in a territorial frog (Rana catesbeiana). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 269: 1443-1448.
  • Murphy, C.G. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2002. Mate-sampling by female barking treefrogs Hyla gratiosa). Behavioral Ecology 13: 472-480.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Huber, F.. 2002. Acoustic Communication in Insects and Frogs: Common Problems and Diverse Solutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2002. Sexual dimorphism. In: Encyclopedia of Evolution (Pagel, Mark, ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2002. Neuroethology of sound communication in anurans (frogs and toads). In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (G. Adelman and B. H. Smith, eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, published on-line
  • Schwartz, J.J., Buchanan, B.W. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2002. Acoustic interactions among male gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor, in a chorus setting. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 53: 9-19
  • Höbel, G.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2003. Reproductive character displacement in the acoustic communication system of green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea). Evolution 57: 894-904.
  • Endepols, H., Feng, A.S., Gerhardt, H.C., Schul, J. and Walkowiak, W.. 2003. Roles of the auditory midbrain and thalamus in selective phonotaxis in female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). Behavioral Brain Research 145: 53-77.
  • Gerhardt, H. C. 2003. Animal communication. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 114: 578. Book Review.
  • Endepols, H., Schul, J., Gerhardt, H.C. and Walkowiak, W.. 2004. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions in anuran amphibians: A new model system for Parkinson's disease? Behavioral Neurobiology 60: 395-410.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2004. Chorusing in frogs. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (Marc Bekoff, ed), pp. 383-385. Greenwood Press, Westport CT#
  • Klump, G.M., Benedix, Jr. J.H., Gerhardt, H.C. and Narins, P.M.. 2004. AM-representation in green treefrog auditory-nerve fibers: neuroethological implications for pattern recognition and sound localization. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 190:1011-1021.
  • Gerhardt H.C. 2005. Acoustic spectral preferences in two cryptic species of grey treefrogs: implications for mate choice and sensory mechanisms. Animal Behaviour 70: 39-49.
  • Gerhardt H.C. 2005. Advertisement-call preferences in diploid-tetraploid treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and Hyla versicolor): implications for mate choice and the evolution of communication systems. Evolution 59: 395-408.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Höbel, G.. 2005. Mid-frequency suppression in the green treefrog (Hyla cinerea): implications for mechanisms and the evolution of acoustic communication. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 191: 707-714.
  • Jang, Y. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2006. Divergence in the calling songs between sympatric and allopatric populations of the southern wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 459-472.
  • Holloway, A. K., Cannatella, D.C., Gerhardt, H.C. and Hillis, D.M.. 2006. Polyploids with different origins and ancestors form a single sexual polyploidy species. American Naturalist 167: E88-E101.
  • Marshall, V.T., Schwartz, J.J. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2006. The effects of cross-species advertisement call overlap on signal discrimination and phonotactic behaviour of grey treefrogs Animal Behaviour 72: 449-459
  • Robillard, T., Höbel, G. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2006. Evolution of advertisement signals in North American hylid frogs: vocalizations as end-products of calling behavior. Cladistics 22: 1-13.
  • Jang, Y.and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2006. Divergence in female calling song discrimination between sympatric and allopatric populations of the southern wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 60:150-158.
  • Jang, Y. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2007. Differential temperature effects on calling songs between allopatric and sympatric populations of Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 20: 33-52.
  • Jang, Y., Bockhorst, A. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2007. Reproductive isolation in the wood cricket Gryllus vernalis (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Ethology 113: 87-96.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Humfeld, S.C., and Marshall, V.T.. 2007. Temporal order and the evolution of complex acoustic signals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Part B 274: 1789-1794.
  • Gerhardt, H.C., Martinez-Rivera, C.C., Schwartz, J.J., Marshall, V.T. and Murphy, C.G.. 2007. Preferences based on spectral differences in acoustic signals in four species of treefrogs. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 2990-2998.
  • Höbel, G. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2007. Sources of selection on signal timing in a tree frog. Ethology 113: 773-782.
  • Jang, Y., Gerhardt, H.C. and Choe, J.. 2008. A comparative study of aggressiveness in eastern North American field cricket species (Genus Gryllus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62: 1397-1407
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2008. Phonotactic selectivity in two cryptic species of gray treefrogs: effects of differences in pulse rate, carrier frequency and playback level. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 2609-2616. Featured in Inside JEB
  • Martínez-Rivera, C.S. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2008. Advertisement-call modification, male competition, and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 195-208.
  • Gordon, N.M. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2009. Hormonal modulation of phonotaxis and advertisement-call preferences in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor). Hormones and Behavior 55:121-127.
  • Gerhardt, H. C. & Brooks, R.. 2009. Experimental evidence of multivariate female choice in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor): evidence for directional and stabilizing selection. Evolution 63: 2504-2512.
  • Marshall, V.T. & Gerhardt, H.C.. 2010. A precedence effect underlies preferences for leading pulses in the grey treefrog (Hyla versicolor). Animal Behaviour 80: 139-145.
  • Klymus, K.E., Humfeld, S.C., Marshall, V.T., Cannatella, D. & Gerhardt, H.C.. 2010. Molecular patterns of differentiation in canyon treefrogs (Hyla arenicolor): evidence for introgressive hybridization with the Arizona treefrog (H. wrightorum) and correlations with advertisement call differences. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 1425-1435.
  • Reichert, M.S. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2011. The role of body size on the outcome, escalation and duration of contests in the grey treefrog Hyla versicolor. Animal Behaviour, in press.
  • Tucker, M.A. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2012. Parallel changes in mate-attracting calls and female preferences in autotriploids tree frogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 279:1583- 1587
  • Klymus, K.E., Humfeld, S.C. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2012. Geographic variation in male advertisement calls and female preference of the wide-ranging canyon treefrog, Hyla arenicolor. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, in press
  • Reichert, M.S. and Gerhardt, H.C.. 2012. Trade-offs and upper limits to signal performance during close-range vocal competition in gray treefrogs, Hyla versicolor. American Naturalist, in press.


  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Huber, F.. 2002. Acoustic Communication in Insects and Frogs: Common Problems and Diverse Solutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Elliott, L., Gerhardt, H.C. & Davidson, C.. 2009. Frogs and Toads of North America: A Comprehensive Guide to their Identification, Behavior and Calls. Houghton-Mifflin. Gerhardt was responsible for most of the writing

Recent Invited Chapters

  • Gerhardt, H.C. and Bee, M.A.. 2006. Recognition and localization of acoustic signals. In: Hearing and Sound Communication in Amphibians (Ed: Feng, Narins, Popper & Fay, pp. 113-146. New York: Springer Verlag.
  • Gerhardt, H.C. 2010. Mating Signals. In: Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior (Ed: Breed & Moore), pp. 416-423. Elsevier, Ltd.
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