Body-worn camera devices, the focus of this thesis, promise a range of benefits, including memory augmentation, facilitation of indoor and outdoor visual navigation and assistive functions, e.g., for the visually impaired. On the down-side, they have also displayed a lack of social acceptability. In consequence, they become practically unusable, which prohibits the user from access to applications, services, or information and may impede social empowerment. To date, human-centered design (HCD) only sparsely provides methods and best practices to attend to such social acceptability issues. In particular, social acceptability issues are often considered only after deployment, which may lead to costly re-design of interfaces, or increase stigmata of device usage.
This dissertation challenges interface design to attend to social acceptability issues not after deployment, but during all phases of an HCD process, namely (1) Observe & Understand, (2) Ideate & Design, (3) Prototype, (4) Test & Evaluate, and (5) Implement & Deploy. To this aim, we examine how human-centered design can account for both the user's and the bystander's needs, goals, and values while designing socially acceptable body-worn cameras. Concretely, we analyze user and bystander attitudes and expectations, and identify factors influencing social acceptability (phase 1), namely context, bystander control, and knowledge about recording status and usage intentions. Through participatory design, we conceptualize design strategies that leverage these factors (phase 2) and implement them in research prototypes (phase 3): gesture-based controls to enable bystanders to Opt-in or Opt-out, and candid, context-sensitive device behavior to provide situation awareness and justification. We verify the effect of these design strategies on social acceptability based on user studies in lab and field (phase 4), and discuss the results obtained from evaluating research prototypes in relation to self-reports from users of off-the-shelf, body-worn camera devices (phase 5). Our results show that body-worn cameras should employ candid, instead of unobtrusive, form factors, and combine user-controlled and proactive device behavior to increase social acceptability.
Covering all phases of the HCD process in a meta-analysis, we demonstrate that social acceptability issues can be acknowledged in each phase, where we critically reflect on the presented HCD process and the employed methods. Finally, we discuss methodical implications and generalizability to other types of human-machine interfaces, and point out methodical gaps to be filled by future research.
Betreuerin: Prof. Dr. Susanne Boll
Designing Socially Acceptable Body-worn CamerasKolloquium
18. Februar 2019, 16:15
Marion Koelle, Universität Oldenburg
OFFIS, Escherweg 2, Raum F 02