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Determination of Phase Equilibria

Experimental Determination of Phase Equilibria

Experimental Investigations of Different Unit Operations 

An overview on the different experimental facilities is given in the following table:

1. Mixture Data

1.1. Vapor - Liquid Equilibria                                                                                        

Static Apparatus, High Pressure < 250 bar  0 - 200 ºC x, y,T, P
Static Apparatus, High Pressure < 400 bar  25 - 400 °C x, y, T, P
Computer Driven Static Apparatus  < 3 bar  -10 - 90 ºC x, T, P
Computer Driven Static Apparatus < 30 bar  -10 - 160 ºC x, T, P
Computer Driven Dynamic Apparatus < 1 bar  -20 - 220 ºC x, T, P
Flow Apparatus, Determination of Critical Points < 400 bar   25 - 400 °C x=y, T, P
Headspace Chromatograph < 3 bar   0 - 150 ºC x, y, T
Dynamic Still (NORMAG) < 1 bar   25 - 160 ºC x, y, T, P
Swietoslawski Ebulliometer < 1 bar -20 - 220 ºC x, y, T, P
Scott-Ebulliometer < 1 bar  -20 - 220 °C x, y, T, P
    

1.2. Activity Coefficents at Infinite Dilution

Gas-Liquid Chromatograph 
0 - 90 ºC Bild , T
Dilutor (Determination of Gamma Infinite and Henry Coefficients in Pure Solvents and Mixtures)
0 - 150 ºC Bild, T, H12
Scott Type Ebulliometer < 1 bar
-20 - 220 °C Bild, x, y, T, P
    

1.3. Azeotropic Composition

Spinning Band Column < 1 bar
25 - 150 ºC yaz, T, P
Spinning Band Column < 3 bar 25 - 150 ºC yaz, T, P
    

1.4. Excess Enthalpy

Computer - Driven Flow Calorimeter  < 160 bar 25 - 200 ºC x, T, hE
Setaram Calorimeter 

< 3 bar

-190 - 190 ºC x, T, hE
    

1.5. Liquid - Liquid Equilibria

Analytical Method < 1 bar
0 - 100 ºC x", x"", T,
Liquid-Liquid Countercurrent
Chromatography

25 - 50 ºC x3"/x3"", T
    

1.6. Solid - Liquid Equilibria

Synthetic Method (Visual < 1 bar
-90 - 50 ºC x, Tm

1.7.Multicomponent Adsorption (Gas Phase)

Flow Apparatus
(Break through curve)
< 1 bar 0 - 50 ºC

1.8. Octanol - Water Partition Coefficient

Liquid-Liquid Countercurrent
Chromatography

25 - 50 °C
KOW




1.9 EMF - Measuring

PH / ISE - Meter (Orion 920A), Different Ionensensitive Elektrodes


20 - 60 ºC Bild
 





2. Pure Component and Mixture Properties                                                     





2.1. Pure Component Vapor Pressure

Different Designs

T, Ps




2.2. Liquid Density

Vibrating Tube Densitometer (Paar) 1 bar
25 - 50 ºC ρ,T,P
Vibrating Tube Densimeter (Prototype from Dr. Stabinger (Graz)) < 400 bar
< 250 ºC ρ,T,P
Vibrating Tube Densitometer (Paar)
< 1300 bar
-10 - 180 °C
ρ,T,P




2.3. Liquid Viscosity

Ubbelohde Viscosimeter  1 bar -20 - 150ºC
Rotation Viscosimeter

300 bar

400°C




2.4. Caloric Data (Bildhv, hm, htr, Ttr, cPL, cPV, ... )

Setaram Calorimeter  100 bar -190 - 190 ºC hm, htr, Ttr,
cPL, cPV
Transitiometer 
also for Corrosive Components
2000 bar   0 - 400 °C

all State- and

Phase Changes

Differential Scanning Calorimeter

3 bar -180 - 550 °C

hm, Δhtr, Tm,

Ttr, cpS, cpL

 




3. Reaction Kinetics                                                                                                     





Batch Reactors 1 bar < 95 ºC K, hRo,
k, EA
Flow Reactors 30 bar < 200 °C K, hRo,
k, EA
 




4. Pilot Plants (Æ 50 mm, height 10 m)                                                                        





Tray and Packed Columns

Reactive Distillation (Katapak S)
1 bar < 240 ºC



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