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Gender and Development

Dr. Ali Al-Sakaf and Dr. Zahra Al-Saqqaf

Lectures: Sunday, Oct. 21, 2:00 pm - 5:00 pm
Setting the agenda for the working group: Thursday, Oct. 25, 2:00 pm - 5:00 pm
Working group (independent): Friday, Oct. 26 – Sunday Oct. 28 (16 hrs)
Presentation: Monday, Oct 29, 10:00 – 4:30 pm (30 min.)

Over the last thirty years there have been fundamental changes in policies on and approaches to population, development and gender equality. These are best exemplified in the program of action of the of the international Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, 1994 and the Platform for Action of the Forth World Conference on Women(FWCW)in Beijing in 1995. The issue of Gender and Development has found a great importance from researchers all over the World particularly after the international conferences (ICPD & FWCW).

The 2006 World Development Report on equity and development refers to gender inequality as the "archetypal inequality trap". The sharp differences between men and women in access to assets and as the opportunities in many developing countries restrict women's basic freedom to choose and have negative consequences for the well-being of their children, families and communities. These differences entrench inequality and are unfair (World Bank, 2005). Gender equality does not necessary mean equality of outcomes for males and females, it means equal access to the "opportunities that allow people to pursue a life of their own choosing and to avoid extreme deprivations in outcomes" – that is gender equality in rights, and voice (World Bank, 2001, 2005). Equality of rights refers to equality under the law, whether customary or statutory. Equality of resources refers to equality of opportunity, including equality of access to human capital investments and other productive resources and to markets. Equality of voice captures the ability to influence and contribute to the political discourse and the development process.

Dr. Ali Al-Sagaf in the first lecture will address the theoretical background of Gender and Development and discuss the measurements approaches of gender and development as presented by the Human Development Report1996.These measurements are: Human Development Index (HDI ), Gender Related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Index (GEI). Moreover some examples and applications from developed and developing countries on gender and development indices will be discussed.

While Dr. Ali Ahmed Al-Sagaf and Dr. Zahra Al-Saqqaf, of University of Aden, in the course will discuss the issue of women status and development in Yemen, she will discuss the determinants of female labor force participation in Yemen. Female participation in labor force represents one of the main elements in womens development. But there are still significant gaps facing this participation, whether in developed or developing countries. The economic literature on the determinants of female participation in the labor force is quite extensive. Demographic, socio-economic and cultural factors play a part in guiding womens decisions and their level of labor force. This study showed a significant impact of female education on female labor force participation in Yemen.

Literature:

Selected readings:

  • Asia Development Bank (ADB). Policy On Gender and Development :Gender and development issues in the Asia and Pacific region 2007, http://www.adb.org.
  • Dernburg Thomas F. Macro-Economics: Concepts, Theories and Policies.
    McGraw-hill International Editions.London,1986.
  • Heward, Christine & Bunwaree, Sheila.Gender,Education&Development.Zed Books Ltd.London&New York
  • Mayra Buvnic and Elizabeth M. King : Smart Economics: Finance and Development ; A quarterly Magazine of the IMF, Vol 44.No.2 June 2007.
  • Colburn Marta.Gender and Development in Yemen.Oxfam.2000.
  • Mason, Andrew D., King, ElizabethM. Engendering development through gender equality in rights, resources, and voice. A world Bank Policy research Report(No.21776).2001: http://go.worldbank.org
  • Marcela Villarreal & Jacques du Guerny :Gender and development: Why do we still have problems in population programs after all these years? http://www.fao.org/sd/wpdirect/wpan0020.htm
  • Sadik Nafis, An Agenda For People : Women are the Key to Development .United Nation Population Fund. New York University Press,2002.
  • Sen Amartya. Development As Freedom: Effectiveness of Women and Social change. Oxford University Press. New Delhi,2000.
  • Thirlwall.A.P . Growth and Development : ELBS .Macmillan. London 1994
  • UNDP ,Human Development Reports , 1996 , 2000, 2006.
  • The World Bank ,World Development Reports, 2001, 2005.
  • The World Bank,2004,Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa,MENA Development Report.                                                                 
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