Contact details

Institute of Dutch Studies  (» Postal address)

A10 1-109 (» Adress and map)

Freitag 09:00 - 10:00 Uhr

+49 441 798-4695  (F&P

Institute of Material Culture  (» Postal address)

Prof. Dr. Esther Ruigendijk

Interests: Linguistics, Psycholinguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Processing, Language disorders, Language and hearing, Code Switching


1992-1996 University of Groningen, Dutch Literature and Linguistics. Specialization: Psycholinguistics. 1998-2001 University of Groningen, PhD in Dutch linguistics, thesis: 'Case assignment in agrammatism: a cross-linguistic study'; defense March 14, 2002.
01.04.2010 - now: professor for Dutch Linguistics at the  University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany (full time) 01.01.2016-31.12.2019: Vice-president for early career researchers and international affairs of the University of Oldenburg, Germany 01.10.2005 - 01.04.2010: junior professor for Dutch Linguistics at the University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany (full time) 01.09.2004 - 01.07.05: junior teacher & policy advisorat Utrecht University for the Master Speech and Language Processing and Disorders (Faculty of Arts) 01.11.2001 - 31.12.2004: postdoctoral researcher at Utrecht University, in the Pionieerproject ´Comparative Psycholinguistics` 0.12.1996 - 31.12.1997 as a language pathologist in the Edith-Stein-Fachklinik für Neurologie und Orthopädie in Bad Bergzabern, Germany (in a rehabilitation center).



Current PhD Students:
Andreas Hiemstra, working on his PhD  "Linguistic transfer between closely related languages in third language acquisition Linguistic transfer between closely related languages in third language acquisition"

Foekje Reitsma, working on PhD "Improvement of L2 fluency and reduction of foreign language anxiety through online formative assessment

Ankelien Schippers is a postdoctoral researcher working on movement assymetries and intervention. (her own DfG project).

Marijke de Belder is a postdoctoral researcher working on derivational morphology and its interfaces.

Bénédicte Grandon is a postdoctoral researcher within the cluster of excellence Hearing for All. She is working on language acquisition and language processing in children with hearing impairment.

Former PhD Students:

  • Mari Chanturidze, PhD "Acquisition of linguistic structures in abnormal auditory perception: the availability of prepositions in hearing impaired children". Defense June 12th 2020.
  • Atty Schouwenaars, PhD "Children's use of morphosyntactic cues" (defense 2018)
  • Angela Jochmann, Phd "The effects of time-manipulated speech on comprehension of syntactic complexity in agrammatic aphasia" (defense September 2016)
  • Hendrikje Ziemann, PhD "Pronoun processing by adult second language learners" (defense August 2016)
  • Sara Jonkers, PhD "Modal verbs in Dutch first language acquisition"(defense October 2013)
  • Rebecca Carroll, PhD "Understanding Speech in Noise at the Syntax-Prosody Interface"(defense June 2012)

Former postdocs:

  • Rebecca Carroll, worked as a postdoctoral research associate in Psycholinguistics in the cluster of excellence Hearing4all. Now working at Braunschweig University as a postdoctoral researcher.
  • István Fekete worked as a postdoctoral research associate in Psycholinguistics and as a scientific associate for statistical-empirical support at the Faculty of Humanities. His postdoctoral research involves the investigation of wh-questions in German.
  • Margreet Vogelzang was working as a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Dutch Studies of the University of Oldenburg and the in the cluster of excellence Hearing4all, in close cooperation with the labs of Biological Psychology and Applied Neurocognitive Psychology. She is now working at Cambridge University as a postdoctoral researcher.

Publications last 5 years


Ruigendijk, E: & Schumacher (2020) Variation in Reference Assignment Processes. Psycholinguistic evidence from Germanic languages. The Journal of comparative Germanic Linguistics, 23:39–76

Goregliad Fjaellingsdal T, Schwenke D, Ruigendijk E, Scherbaum S, Bleichner MG (2020) Studying brain activity during word-by-word interactions using wireless EEG. PLoS ONE 15(3): e0230280.

Vogelzang, M., Thiel, C.M., Rosemann, S., Rieger, J.W. and Ruigendijk, E. Nneural mechanisms underlying the processing of complex sentences: an fMRI study, Neurobiology of Language 0 0:ja, 1-55,


Chanturidze, M., Carroll, R., & Ruigendijk, E. (2019) Comprehension and Production of Prepositions by German-speaking Children. In P. Guijarro-Fuentes, & C. Suárez-Gómez (Eds.), Proceedings of GALA 2017: Language Acquisition and Development (pp. 271-288). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Chanturidze, M., Carroll, R. & Ruigendijk, E. (2019) Prepositions as a hybrid between lexical and functional category: Evidence from an ERP study on German sentence processing. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 52,

Schouwenaars, A., Hendriks, P., Finke, M., & Ruigendijk, E. (2019). Eye gaze reveals that children with cochlear implants have difficulty processing subject-verb agreement. In P. Guijarro-Fuentes, & C. Suárez-Gómez (Eds.), Proceedings of GALA 2017: Language Acquisition and Development (pp. 47-63). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Schouwenaars, A., Finke, M., Hendriks, P., & Ruigendijk, E. (2019). Which questions do children with cochlear implants understand? An eye-tracking study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 62(2), 387-409. doi:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-H-17-0310 

Vogelzang, M., Thiel, C. M., Rosemann, S., Rieger, J. W., & Ruigendijk, E. (2019). Cognitive Abilities to Explain Individual Variation in the Interpretation of Complex Sentences by Older Adults. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Weber, K., Micheli, C., Ruigendijk, E., Rieger, J.W. Sentence processing is modulated by the current linguistic environment and a priori information: An fMRI study. Brain and Behavior.


Fekete, I., Schulz, P., & Ruigendijk, E. (2018). Exhaustivity in single bare wh-questions: A differential-analysis of exhaustivity. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 3(1), 96. DOI:

I Schierholz, C Schönermark, B Kopp, T Lenarz, A Kral, E Ruigendijk, A. Büchner Active and passive processing of novel acoustic stimuli in cochlear-implant patients: An EEG study Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie 97 (S 02), 10574

Schouwenaars, A., Hendriks, P., & Ruigendijk, E. (2018). German children’s processing of morphosyntactic cues in wh-questions. Applied psycholinguistics, 39(6), 1279-1318. Doi:10.1017/s0142716418000334


Ruigendijk, E. and Friedmann, N. (2017) A Deficit in Movement-Derived Sentences in German-Speaking Hearing-Impaired Children. Front. Psychol. 8:689. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00689

T.  Goregliad Fjaellingsdal, Ruigendijk, E., Scherbaum, S., and Bleichner, M. G., “Corrigendum: The N400 effect during speaker-switch – Towards a conversational approach of measuring neural correlates of language”, Front. Psychol., vol. 8:998. pp. 1-2, 2017.


Ruigendijk, E. Zeller, J.P. & Hentschel, G. (2016) How L2-learners' brains react to code switches. An ERP study with Russian learners of German. Second Language Research, 32 (2), 197- 223, doi:10.1177/0267658315614614

Ziemann, H. & Ruigendijk, E. (2016) L2 speakers‘ processing of reflexives and personal pronouns. A self-paced reading study of German learners of Dutch. In:  SGG The Impact of Pronominal Form on Interpretation (Edited by Patrick Georg Grosz, Pritty Patel-Grosz), pp..373 -392, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Carroll, R., & Ruigendijk, E. (2016). ERP responses to processing prosodic phrasing of sentences in amplitude modulated noise. Neuropsychologia, 82, 91-103. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.01.014.

Carroll R., Warzybok, A., Kollmeier, B. and Ruigendijk, E. (2016). Age-related differences in lexical access relate to speech recognition in noise. Front. Psychol. 7:990. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00990

Carroll, R., Uslar, V, Brand, T., Ruigendijk, E. (2016) Processing mechanisms in hearing impaired listeners: evidence from reaction times and sentence interpretation. Ear and Hearing, 37,(6) e391-e401 doi:10.1097/AUD.0000000000000339

Carroll,R., Warzybok, A., Kollmeier, B., and Ruigendijk, E., “Does hearing impairment modulate the relation of speech recognition thresholds and lexical access?”, Jahrestagung der Dt. Ges. für Audiologie (DGA). p. 201, 2016.

Zeller, J.P., Hentschel, G. & Ruigendijk, E. (2016) Psycholinguistic aspects of Belarusian-Russian language contact. An ERP study on code-switching between closely related languages. In: Anstatt, Gattnar, Glasmeier (eds)  Slavic Languages in psycholinguistics. Chances and challenges for empirical and experimental research, p. 257-278, Tübingen: Narr.

Finke, M., Büchner, A., Ruigendijk, E., Meyer, M., & Sandmann, P. (2016). On the relationship between auditory cognition and speech intelligibility in cochlear implant users: An ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 87, 169-181.

Fuhrhop, N., Carrol, R., Drews, C & Ruigendijk, E. (2016) Sind die Buchstabenformen eine Lesehilfe? Mitteilungen des Germanistenverbandes. Special Issues ‚der gute Leser‘, 63 (2), 119 -128.

Goregliad_fjaellingsdal T, Ruigendijk E, Scherbaum S and Bleichner MG (2016) The N400 effect during speaker-switch – Towards a conversational approach of measuring neural correlates of language. Front. Psychol. 7:1854. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01854

B.  Kollmeier, Carroll, R., Warzybok, A., Uslar, V., Brand, T., and Ruigendijk, E., “Sentence recognition in noise: How well do we understand sensory and cognitive factors?”, Proc. German Annual Conf. Acoust. (DAGA). 2016.

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