Publications since 2006



Weber, M.; Zotz, G. 2024. Detritus-filled tree crotches – an ignored tree-related microhabitat in Central Europe. European Journal of Entomology 121: 31-36.

Nikolic N, Zotz G, Bader MY. 2024. Modelling the carbon balance of bryophytes and lichens: presentation of PoiCarb 1.0, a new model for explaining distribution patterns and predicting climate-change effects. American Journal of Botany DOI 10.1002/ajb2.16266


Zotz G, Armenia L, Einzmann HJR. 2023. A new approach to an old problem - how to categorize the habit of ferns and lycophytes. Annals of Botany 132: 513–522.

Werner JC, Albach DC, Can L, Zotz G. 2023. The velamen radicum is common in the genus Anthurium, both in epiphytic and terrestrial species. Diversity 16: 18

Pie MR, Caron FS, Dallimore T, et al. 2023. Phylogenetic diversity and the structure of host-epiphyte interactions across the Neotropics. PeerJ 11: e15500.

Carmona-Higuita MJ, Mendieta Leiva G, Gómez-Diaz JA, et al. 2023. Conservation status of vascular epiphytes in the Neotropics. Biodiversity and Conservation in press. DOI 10.1007/s10531-023-02730-8

Gegenbauer C, Bellaire A, Schmidt M, Schintlmeister A, Kubitschek M, Voglmayr H, Zotz G, Richter A, Mayer V. 2023. Exo- and endophytic fungi enable rapid transfer of nutrients from ant waste to orchid tissue. New Phytologist 238: 2210-2223.

Rodríguez Quiel C, Einzmann HJR, Zotz G. 2023. Does a velamen radicum effectively protect epiphyte roots against excessive infrared radiation? Plants 12: 1695.

Tay J, Zotz G, Einzmann HJR. 2023. Smoothing out the misconceptions of the role of bark roughness in vascular epiphyte attachment. New Phytologist 238: 983-994.

Zotz G, Andrade JL, Einzmann HJR. 2023. CAM plants: Their importance in epiphyte communities and prospects with global change. Annals of Botany in press. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcac158

Zotz G, Einzmann HJR. 2023. How epiphytic are filmy ferns? A semi-quantitative approach. Diversity 15: 270.

Zotz G, Hoeber V. 2023. Accidental epiphytes – Please scan the tree tops, take a photo and upload it on iNaturalist. IAVS Bulletin 1: 14-17.


Aguilar-Cruz Y, García-Franco JG, Osorio-Salomón K & Zotz G. 2022. Litter-trapping tank bromeliads in five different forests: Carbon and nutrient pools and fluxes. Biotropica 54: 170-180.

Aguilar-Cruz Y, Milke F, Leinberger J, Poehlein A, Zotz G & Brinkhoff T. 2022. Diversity and putative metabolic function of prokaryotic communities in tank bromeliads along an elevation gradient in tropical Mexico. Frontiers in Microbiology 13, 945488.

Bader MY, Moureau E, Nikolić N, Madena T, Koehn N & Zotz G. 2022. Simulating climate change in situ in a tropical rainforest understorey using active air warming and CO2 addition. Ecology and Evolution 12: e8406.

Balilashaki K, Vahedi M, Ho T-T, Niu S-C, Cardoso JC, Zotz G & Khodamzadeh AA. 2022. Biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of Cymbidium orchids: an ecological and economic overview. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 44: 24.

Diaz, S.; ….; Zotz, G. 2022. The global spectrum of plant form and function: enhanced species-level trait dataset. Scientific Data 9, 755.

Einzmann HJR, Tay J & Zotz G. 2022. What happens to epiphytic bromeliads in a windy spot? Journal of Tropical Ecology 38: 158 - 163.

Einzmann HJR, Weichgrebe L & Zotz G. 2022. The impact of a severe El Niño event on vascular epiphytes in lowland Panama. Diversity 14: 325.

Eskov AK, Viktorova VA, Abakumov EV & Zotz G. 2022. Cellular growth in aerial roots differs from that in typical substrate roots. Frontiers in Plant Science 13: 894647.

Guzmán-Jacob V, Guerrero Ramirez N, Craven D, Brant Paterno G, Taylor A, Krömer T, Wanek W, Zotz G & Kreft H. 2022. Broad- and small-scale environmental gradients drive variation in chemical, but not morphological, leaf traits of vascular epiphytes. Functional Ecology 36: 1858–1872.

Hietz P, Wagner K, …., Einzmann HJR, … & Zotz G. 2022. Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology 110: 340-358.

Hoeber V & Zotz G. 2022. Accidental epiphytes: Ecological insights and evolutionary implications. Ecological Monographs e1527.

Maynard LD, Moureau E, Bader MY, Salazar D, Zotz G & Whitehead SR. 2022. Effects of climate change on plant resource allocation and herbivore interactions in a Neotropical rainforest shrub. Ecology and Evolution 12: e9198.

Mellado-Mansilla D, Testo W, Sundue M, Zotz G, Kreft H, Coiro M & Kessler M. 2022. The relationship between chlorophyllous spores and mycorrhizal associations in ferns: evidence from an evolutionary approach. American Journal of Botany 109: 2068-2081.

Mendieta Leiva G, Buckley HL & Zotz G. 2022. Directional changes over time in the species composition of tropical vascular epiphyte assemblages. Journal of Ecology 110: 553–568.

Reyes-García C, Pereira-Zaldívar NA, Espadas-Manrique C, Tamayo-Chim M, Chilpa-Galván N, Cach-Pérez MJ, Ramírez-Medina Marypaz, Benavides AM, Hietz P, Zotz G, Andrade JL, Cardelús C, de Paula Oliveira R, Einzmann HJR, Guzmán-Jacob V, Krömer T, Pinzón JP, Sarmento Cabral J, Wanek W & Woods C. 2022. New proposal of epiphytic Bromeliaceae functional groups to include nebulophytes and shallow tanks. Plants 11: 3151.

Tay J, Zotz G & Einzmann HJR. 2022. Thigmomorphogenic responses of epiphytic bromeliads to mechanically-induced stress. Plant Ecology 223: 1-11.

Tay J, Kovalev A, Zotz G, Einzmann HJR & Gorb SN. 2022. Holding on or falling off: the attachment mechanism of epiphytic Anthurium obtusum (Engl.) Grayum changes with substrate roughness. American Journal of Botany 109: 874-886.

Taylor A, Zotz G, Weigelt P, Cai L, Karger DN, König C & Kreft H. 2022. Vascular epiphytes contribute disproportionately to global centres of plant diversity. Global Ecology and Biogeography 31: 62–74.

Thomsen MS, Altieri AH, Angelini C, Bishop MJ, Bulleri F, Farhan R, Frühling VMM, Harrison SB, He Q, Gribben PE, Klinghardt M, Langeneck J, Lanham BS, Mondardini L, Mulders Y, Oleksyn S, Ramus A, Schneider T, Schiel DR, Siciliano A, Silliman BR, Smale D, South PM, Wernberg T, Zhang S & Zotz G. 2022. Heterogeneity within and among co-occurring foundation species increases biodiversity. Nature Communications 13: 581.

Zotz G & Rodríguez Quiel C. 2022. Is Pitcairnia halophila really a halophyte? Evidence from a germination and growth experiment. Journal of Tropical Ecology 38: 233-240.



Aguilar-Cruz Y, Arenas-Cruz MdlÁ, Ochoa-Ochoa LM & Zotz G. 2021. Arboreal shelters along an elevation gradient: Amphibians in tank bromeliads. Ichthyology & Herpetology 109: 211-218.

Aguilar-Cruz Y, García-Franco JG & Zotz G. 2021. Microsites and early litter decomposition patterns in the soil and forest canopy at regional scale. Biogeochemistry 151: 15–30.

Bauer B, Kleyer M, Albach DC, Blasius B, Brose U, Ferreira-Arruda T, Feudel U, Gerlach G, Hof C, Kreft H, Kuczynski L, Lõhmus K, Moorthi S, Scherber C, Scheu S, Zotz G & Hillebrand H. 2021. Functional trait dimensions of multitrophic metacommunities. Ecography 43: 1486–1500.

Bautista-Bello AP, Krömer T, Acebey AR, Weichgrebe L & Zotz G. 2021. Variación biológica en las aráceas trepadoras. Acta Botánica Mexicana 128: e1819.

Díaz IA, Godoy-Güinao J, Mellado-Mansilla D, Moreno-Gonzalez R, Cuq E, Ortega-Solis G, & Armesto JJ. 2021. Advanced canopy regeneration: an unrecognized mechanism of forest dynamics. Ecology 102: e03222-e03222.

Einzmann HJR, Weichgrebe L & Zotz G. 2021. Long‐term community dynamics in vascular epiphytes on Annona glabra along the shoreline of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Journal of Ecology 109: 1931–1946.‐2745.13618

Gómez González DC, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2021. The role of epiphytes in rainfall interception of a tropical montane cloud forest in Panama. In: Dalling JW & Turner BL (Eds.). Fortuna Forest Reserve, Panama: interacting effects of climate and soils on the biota of a wet premontane tropical forest. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.

Guzmán-Jacob V, Weigelt P, Craven P, Zotz G, Krömer T & Kreft H. 2021. Biovera-Epi: A new database on species diversity, community composition, and leaf functional traits of vascular epiphytes along gradients of elevation and forest-use intensity in Mexico. Biodiversity Data Journal 9: bdj.9.71974.

Hoeber V & Zotz G. 2021. Not so stressful after all: Epiphytic individuals of accidental epiphytes experience more favourable abiotic conditions than terrestrial conspecifics. Forest Ecology and Management 479: 118529.

Klinghardt M & Zotz G. 2021. Abundance and seasonal growth of epiphytic ferns at three sites along a rainfall gradient in Western Europe. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 274: 151749.

Mellado-Mansilla D, Zotz G, Kreft H, Sundue M & Kessler M. 2021. The taxonomic distribution of chlorophyllous spores in ferns - an update. American Fern Journal 111: 150-156.

Paula Oliveira R, Zotz G, Wanek W & Franco A. 2021. Leaf trait co-variation and trade-offs in gallery forest C3 and CAM epiphytes. Biotropica 53: 520-535.

Petter G, Kreft H, Ong Y, Zotz G & Cabral JS. 2021. Modeling the long-term dynamics of tropical forests: from leaf traits to whole-tree growth patterns. Ecological Modelling 460: 109735.

Petter G, Kreft H, Zotz G & Cabral JS. 2021. Agent-based modelling of the effects of forest dynamics, selective logging and fragment size on epiphyte communities. Ecology and Evolution 11: 2937–2951.

Reis Gonçalves D, Pena R, Zotz G & Albach DC. 2021. Effects of fungal inoculation on the growth of Salicornia (Amaranthaceae) under different salinity conditions. Symbiosis 84: 195–208.

Rodríguez Quiel C & Zotz G. 2021. Vascular epiphytes assemblages along an elevational gradient on isolated trees in Southwest Panama. Diversity 13: 49.

Tay J, Zotz G, Gorb SN & Einzmann HJR. 2021. Getting a grip on the adhesion mechanism of epiphytic orchids – evidence from histology and Cryo-SEM. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change – Forest Ecophysiology 4: 764357.

Tay JYL, Zotz G, Puczylowski J & Einzmann H. 2021. Go with the flow: The extent of drag reduction as epiphytic bromeliads reorient in wind. PLoS ONE 16: e0252790.

Taylor A, Keppel G, Weigelt P, Zotz G & Kreft H. 2021. Functional traits are key to understanding orchid diversity on islands. Ecography 44: 1–12.

Wagner K, Wanek W & Zotz G. 2021. Functional traits of a rainforest vascular epiphyte community: trait covariation and indications for host specificity. Diversity 13: 97.

Zotz G, Almeda F, Arias S, Hammel B & Pansarin E. 2021. Do secondary hemiepiphytes exist? Journal of Tropical Ecology 37: 286-290.

Zotz G, Almeda F, Bautista-Bello AP, Eskov AK, Giraldo-Cañas D, Hammel BE, Harrison RD, Köster N, Krömer T, Lowry II PP, Moran RC, Plunkett GM & Weichgrebe L. 2021. Hemiepiphytes revisited. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 51: 125620.

Zotz G, Hietz P & Einzmann HJR. 2021. Functional ecology of vascular epiphytes. Annual Plant Reviews Online 4: 869-905.

Zotz G, Weigelt P, Kessler M, Kreft H & Taylor A. 2021. EpiList 1.0 - A global checklist of vascular epiphytes. Ecology 00: e03326.



Einzmann HJR, Schickenberg N & Zotz G. 2020. Variation in root morphology of epiphytic orchids along small-scale and large-scale moisture gradients. Acta Botanica Brasilica 34: 66-73.

Göbel CY, Schlumpberger BO & Zotz G. 2020. What is a pseudobulb? – Towards a quantitative definition. International Journal of Plant Science 181: 686-696.

Guzmán-Jacob V, Zotz G, Craven D, Taylor A, Krömer T, Monge-González ML & Kreft H. 2020. Effects of forest-use intensity on vascular epiphyte diversity along an elevational gradient. Diversity and Distributions 26: 4-15.

Hoeber V, Klinghardt M & Zotz G. 2020. Drought resistance does not explain epiphytic abundance of accidental epiphytes. Plant Ecology & Diversity 13: 175-187.

Janzen T, Zotz G & Etienne RS. 2020. Community structure of vascular epiphytes: a neutral perspective. Oikos 129: 853–867.

Joca TAC, Coelho de Oliveira D, Zotz G, Cardoso JCF & Moreira ASP. 2020. Chemical composition of cell walls in velamentous roots of epiphytic Orchidaceae. Protoplasma 257: 103–118.

Kattge J, Bönisch G, Díaz S, ...., Wagner K, … Zotz G & Wirth C. 2020. TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access. Global Change Biology 26: 119-188.

Mendieta Leiva G, Ramos FN, Elias JPC, Zotz G, Acuña-Tarazona M, Alvim FS, Barbosa DEF, Basílio GA, Batke SP, Benavides AM, Blum CT, Boelter CR, Carmona MJ, Carvalho LP, Rosa-Manzano Edl, Einzmann HJR, Fernández M, Furtado SG, Gasper ALd, Guzmán-Jacob V, Hietz P, Irume MV, Jiménez-López DA, Kessler M, Kreft H, Krömer T, Machado GMO, Martínez-Meléndez N, Martins PLSS, Mello RdM, Mendes AF, Neto LM, Mortara SR, Nardy C, Oliveira RdP, Pereira ACA, Pillaca L, Quaresma AC, Rodríguez Quiel C, Medina ES, Taylor A, Vega MS, Wagner K, Werneck MS, Werner FA, Wolf JHD, Zartman CE, Zuleta D & Jímenez-Alfaro B. 2020. EpIG-DB: A database of vascular epiphyte assemblages. Journal of Vegetation Science 31: 518-528.

Reimuth J & Zotz G. 2020. The biogeography of the megadiverse genus Anthurium Schott (Araceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 194: 164-176.

Wagner K & Zotz G. 2020. Including dynamics in the equation: Tree growth rates and host specificity of vascular epiphytes. Journal of Ecology 108: 761-773.

Zotz G, Bautista AP, Kohlstruck J & Weichgrebe T. 2020. Life forms in aroids - natural variability vs. terminological confusion. Aroideana 43: 315-333.

Zotz G, Kappert N, Müller L-LB & Wagner K. 2020. Temperature dependence of germination and growth in Anthurium (Araceae). Plant Biology 22: 184-190.

Zotz G, Leja M, Aguilar-Cruz Y & Einzmann HJR. 2020. How much water is in the tank? An allometric analysis with 205 bromeliad species. Flora 264: 151557.



Chávez Sahagún E, Andrade JL, Zotz G & Reyes-García C. 2019. Dew can prolong photosynthesis and water status during drought in some epiphytic bromeliads from a seasonally dry tropical forest. Tropical Conservation Science 12: 1-11.

Díaz IA, Godoy-Güinao J, Sidler H, Mellado-Mansilla D, & Ortega-Solís G. 2019. Bird communities along a post-disturbance successional gradient in andean forests of Bosque Pehuén park, araucanía region, southern Chile. Ornitología Neotropical 30: 113-122.

Hoeber V, Weichgrebe T & Zotz G. 2019. Accidental epiphytism in the Harz Mountains, Central Europe. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 765-775.

Müller L-LB, Zotz G & Albach D. 2019. Bromeliaceae subfamilies show divergent trends of genome size evolution. Scientific Reports 9: 5136.

Spruch L, Hellwig J, Zotz G & Blasius B. 2019. Modelling community assembly on growing habitat “islands”: A case study on trees and their vascular epiphyte communities. Theoretical Ecology 12: 513–529.

Taylor A, Weigelt P, König C, Zotz G & Kreft H. 2019. Island disharmony revisited using orchids as a model group. New Phytologist 223: 597-606.



Alkarawi HH, Al-Musaifer MA & Zotz G. 2018. Phytate in seeds of wild plants. Flora 244-245: 15-18.

Bader MY, Loranger H, Zotz G & Mendieta Leiva G. 2018. Responses of tree seedlings near alpine treeline to delayed snowmelt and reduced sky exposure. Forests 9: 12.

Chilpa-Galván N, Márquez J, Zotz G, Machado IE, Andrade JL & Reyes-García C. 2018. Seed traits favoring dispersal and establishment of six epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) species. Seed Science Research 28: 349-359.

Müller L-LB, Albach D & Zotz G. 2018. Growth responses to elevated temperatures and the importance of ontogenetic niche shifts in Bromeliaceae. New Phytologist 217: 127-139.

Redelstein R, Zotz G & Balke T. 2018. Seedling stability in anoxic and waterlogged sediments: an experiment with salt marsh plants. Marine Ecology Progress Series 590: 95–108.

Schellenberger-Costa D, Zotz G, Hemp A & Kleyer M. 2018. Trait patterns of epiphytes compared to other plant life forms along a tropical elevation gradient. Functional Ecology 32: 2073–2084.

Thomsen MS, Altieri AH, Angelini C, Bishop MJ, Gribben PE, Lear G, He Q, Schiel DR, Silliman BR, South PM, Watson DM, Wernberg T & Zotz G. 2018. Secondary foundation species enhance biodiversity. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2: 634–39.

Wagner K & Zotz G. 2018. Epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effect of elevated CO2 and varying water supply on growth and nutrient relations. Plant Biology 20: 636–640.



Arruda T, Oliveira D, Zotz G, Winkler U & Moreira ASP. 2017. The velamen of epiphytic orchids: variation in structure and correlations with nutrient absorption. Flora 230: 66-74.

Beyschlag J & Zotz G. 2017. Heteroblasty in epiphytic bromeliads – The functional implications for species in understory and exposed growing sites. Annals of Botany 120: 681-692.

Chilpa-Galván N, Zotz G, Sánchez-Fuente G, Espadas-Manrique C, Andrade JL & Reyes-García C. 2017. Drought, post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of epiphytic bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.). Biotropica 49: 770-773.

Einzmann HJR & Zotz G. 2017.  "No signs of saturation": long-term dynamics of vascular epiphyte communities in a human-modified landscape. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 1393-1410.

Einzmann HJR & Zotz G. 2017. Dispersal and establishment of vascular epiphytes in human-modified landscapes. AoB Plants 9: plx052.

García MC, Cavieres LA, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2017. Carbohydrate reserves in the facilitator cushion plant Laretia acaulis suggest carbon limitation at high elevation and no negative effects of beneficiary plants. Oecologia 183: 997-1006.

Gómez González DC, Rodríguez Quiel C, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2017. Species richness and biomass of epiphytic vegetation in a tropical montane forest in western Panama. Tropical Conservation Science 10: 1-17.

Loranger H, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2017. Competitor or facilitator? The ambiguous role of alpine grassland for the early establishment of tree seedlings at treeline. Oikos 126: 1625-1636.

Müller L-LB, Albach D, Zotz G. 2017. 'Are 3 °C too much?': thermal niche breadth in Bromeliaceae and global warming. Journal of Ecology 105: 507-516.

Will M & Claßen-Bockhoff R. 2017. Time to split Salvia s.l. (Lamiaceae) – New insights from Old World Salvia phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 109: 33-58.

Zotz G. 2017. Growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum in the summit region of Volcan Barú, Panama. Lichenologist 49: 535-538.

Zotz G, Schickenberg N & Albach D. 2017. The velamen radicum is common among terrestrial monocotyledons. Annals of Botany 120: 625–632.



Dulamsuren C, Klinge M, Degener J, Khishigjargal M, Chenlemuge T, Bat-Enerel B, Yeruult Y, Saindovdon D, Ganbaatar K, Tsogtbaatar J, Leuschner C & Hauck M. 2016. Carbon pool densities and a first estimate of the total carbon pool in the Mongolian forest-steppe. Global Change Biology 22: 830-844.

Einzmann HJR, Zotz G. 2016. How diverse are epiphyte assemblages in plantations and secondary forests in tropical lowlands? Tropical Conservation Science 9: 629-647.

Einzmann HJR & Zotz G. 2016. Epiphytes in human settlements in rural Panama. Plant Ecology & Diversity 9: 277–287.

Hauk M, Artykbaeva GT, Zozulya TN & Dulamsuren C. 2016. Pastoral livestock husbandry and rural livelihoods in the forest-steppe of east Kazakhstan. Journal of Arid Environments 133: 102-111.

Hauck M, Dulamsuren C & Leuschner C. 2016. Anomalous increase in winter temperature and decline in forest growth associated with severe winter smog in the Ulan Bator Basin. Water Air and Soil Pollution 277: 261.

Liang E, Leuschner C, Dulamsuren C, Wagner B & Hauck M. 2016. Global warming-related tree growth decline and mortality on the north-eastern Tibetan plateau. Climatic Change 134: 163-176.

Loranger H, Zotz G & Bader M. 2016. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions. AoB Plants 8: plw053.

Petter G, Wagner K, Zotz G, Cabral JS, Wanek W, Sanchez Delgado EJ & Kreft H. 2016. Functional leaf traits of vascular epiphytes: vertical trends within the forest, intra- and interspecific trait variability, and taxonomic signals. Functional Ecology 30: 188-198.

Silva JT da, Jin X, Dobránszki J, Lu J, Wang H, Zotz G, Cardoso JC & Zeng S. 2016. Advances in Dendrobium molecular research: applications in genetic variation, identification and breeding. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 95: 196–216.

Taylor A, Saldaña A, Zotz G, Kirby C, Díaz I & Burns K. 2016. Composition patterns and network structure of epiphyte - host interactions in Chilean and New Zealand temperate forests. New Zealand Journal of Botany 54: 204-222.

Vollrath B & Marzini K. 2016. Mehr Vielfalt und rentable Biogasproduktion – mit den richtigen Blühmischungen ist beides möglich. Biogas Journal 2016: 6–10.

Zotz G. 2016. Plants on Plants. The Biology of Vascular Epiphytes, Berlin Heidelberg New York, Springer.

Zotz G & Beyschlag J. 2016. Wie verbreitet ist Heteroblastie bei Bromelien? Die Bromelie: 74-77.

Zotz G & Traunspurger W. 2016. What´s in the tank? Nematodes and other major components of the meiofauna of bromeliad phytotelms in lowland Panama. BMC Ecology 16: 1-9.

Zotz G, Weichgrebe T, Happatz H & Einzmann HJR. 2016. Measuring the terminal velocity of tiny diaspores. Seed Science Research 26: 222–230.



Brandes M, Albach D, Vogt JC, Mayland-Quellhorst E, Mendieta-Leiva G, Golubic S & Palinska KA. 2015. Supratidal extremophiles-cyanobacterial diversity in the rock pools of the Croatian Adria. Microbial Ecology 70: 876-88.

Cabral JS, Petter G, Mendieta Leiva G, Wagner K, Zotz G & Kreft H. 2015. Branchfall as a demographic filter for epiphyte communities: Lessons from forest floor-based sampling. PLoS One 10: e0128019.

Einzmann HJR, Beyschlag J, Hofhansl F, Wanek W & Zotz G. 2015. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level. AoB Plants 7: plu073.

Mendieta Leiva G & Zotz G. 2015. A conceptual framework for the analysis of vascular epiphyte assemblages. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 17: 510-521.

Wagner K, Mendieta-Leiva G & Zotz G. 2015. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms. AoB PLANTS.

Werner FA and Homeier J. 2015. Is tropical montane forest heterogeneity promoted by a resource-driven feedback cycle? Evidence from nutrient relations, herbivory and litter decomposition along a topographical gradient. Functional Ecology 29: 430-440.

Zotz G & Beyschlag J. 2015. How common is heteroblasty in Bromeliaceae? A plea for help in finding the answer. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 65: 186-191.



Bader M, Loranger H & Zotz G. 2014. A cool experimental approach to explain elevational treelines. But can it explain them? American Journal of Botany 101: 1403-1408.

Correa S & Zotz G. 2014. The influence of collecting date, temperature and moisture regimes on the germination of epiphytic bromeliads. Seed Science Research 24: 353–363.

Hadi Alkarawi H & Zotz G. 2014. Phytic acid in green leaves of herbaceous plants – Temporal variation in situ and response to different N/P fertilizing regimes. AoB Plants 6: plu048.

Hadi Alkarawi H & Zotz G. 2014. Phytic acid in green leaves. Plant Biology 16: 697-701.

Loranger H, Weisser WW, Ebeling A, Eggers T, De Luca E, Loranger J, Roscher C, Meyer ST. 2014. Invertebrate herbivory increases along an experimental gradient of grassland plant diversity. Oecologia 174: 183-193

Manzano ED, Andrade JL, Zotz G & Reyes-García C. 2014. Respuestas fisiológicas a la sequía de cinco especies de orquídeas epífitas en dos selvas secas de la península de Yucatán. Botanical Sciences 92: 607-616.

Manzano ED, Andrade JL, Zotz G & Reyes-García C. 2014. Epiphytic orchids in tropical dry forests of Yucatan, Mexico – Species occurrence, abundance and correlations with host tree characteristics and environmental conditions. Flora 209: 100–109.

Quezada IM, Zotz G & Gianoli E. 2014. Latitudinal variation in the degree of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Puya chilensis. Plant Biology 16: 848-852.

Surina B, Pfanzelt S, Einzmann HJE & Albach DC. 2014. Bridging the Alps and the Middle East: Evolution, phylogeny and systematics of the genus Wulfenia (Plantaginaceae). Taxon 63: 843-858.

Wagner S, Bader MY & Zotz G. 2014. Physiological Ecology of Tropical Bryophytes. In: Hanson DT & Rice SK (Eds.). Photosynthesis of Bryophytes and Early Land Plants. Springer: 269-289.

Wagner S, Zotz G & Bader M. 2014. The temperature acclimation potential of tropical bryophytes. Plant Biology 16: 117-124.

Zotz G, Mendieta Leiva G & Wagner K. 2014. Vascular epiphytes at the treeline – composition of species assemblages and population biology. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 209: 



Bader MY, Reich T, Wagner S, González González AS & Zotz G. 2013. Differences in desiccation tolerance do not explain altitudinal distribution patterns of tropical bryophytes. Journal of Bryology 35: 47-56.

Homeier J, Werner FA, Gawlik J, Peters T, Diertl K-HJ & Richter M. 2013. Plant Diversity and Its Relevance for the Provision of Ecosystem Services. In: Bendix J, Beck E, Bruning A, Makeschin F, Mosandl R, Scheu S & Wilcke W (Eds.). Ecosystem services, biodiversity and environmental change in a tropical mountain ecosystem of South Ecuador. pp. 93-106. Springer London.

Kotowska MM & Werner, FA. 2013. Environmental controls over methane emissions from bromeliad phytotelmata: The role of phosphorus and nitrogen availability, temperature, and water content. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27: 1186-1193.

Kottke I, Setaro S, Haug I, Herrera P, Cruz D, Fries A, Gawlik J, Homeier J, Werner FA, Gerique A & Suárez JP. 2013. Mycorrhiza Networks Promote Biodiversity and Stabilize the Tropical Mountain Rain Forest Ecosystem: Perspectives for Understanding Complex Communities In: Bendix J, Beck E, Bruning A, Makeschin F, Mosandl R, Scheu S & Wilcke W (Eds.). Ecosystem services, biodiversity and environmental change in a tropical mountain ecosystem of South Ecuador. pp. 187-204. Springer London.

Loranger J, Meyer ST, Shipley B, Kattge J, Loranger H, Roscher C, Wirth C & Weisser WW. 2013. Predicting invertebrate herbivory from plant traits: Polycultures show strong nonadditive effects. Ecology 94: 1499-1509

Meisner K & Zotz G. 2013. Heteroblasty in bromeliads - Anatomical, morphological and physiological changes in ontogeny are not related to the change from atmospheric to tank form. Functional Plant Biology 40: 251-262.

Wagner K, Bogusch W & Zotz G. 2013. The role of the regeneration niche for the vertical stratification of vascular epiphytes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 29: 277-290.

Wagner S, Zotz G, Salazar Allen N & Bader MY. 2013. Altitudinal changes in temperature responses of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in tropical bryophytes. Annals of Botany 111: 455-465.

Werner FA, Jantz N, Krashevska V, Peters T, Behling H, Maraun M, Scheu S & Brehm G. 2013. Climate Change: Effects on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. In: Bendix J, Beck E, Bruning A, Makeschin F, Mosandl R, Scheu S & Wilcke W (Eds.). Ecosystem services, biodiversity and environmental change in a tropical mountain ecosystem of South Ecuador. pp. 247-264. Springer London.

Zotz G & Winkler U. 2013. Aerial roots of epiphytic orchids: The velamen radicum and its role in water and nutrient uptake. Oecologia 171: 733-741.

Zotz G. 2013. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes - a critical update. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 171: 453-481.

Zotz G. 2013. "Hemiepiphyte" - a confusing term and its history. Annals of Botany 111: 1015-1020.

Zotz G. 2013. A longer story than expected - Seeds of seven species (Tillandsioideae) remain viable for up to two years. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 63: 83-86.



Gegenbauer C, Meyer V, Zotz G & Richter A. 2012. Uptake of ant-derived nitrogen in the myrmecophytic orchid Caularthron bilamellatum. Annals of Botany 110: 757-765.

Loranger J, Meyer ST, Shipley B, Kattge J, Loranger H, Roscher C & Weisser WW. 2012. Predicting invertebrate herbivory from plant traits: evidence from 51 grassland species in experimental monocultures. Ecology 93: 2674-2682.

Meisner K & Zotz G. 2012. Heteroblasty in bromeliads - Its frequency in a local flora and the timing of the transition from atmospheric to tank form in the field. International Journal of Plant Sciences 173: 780-788.

Werner FA, Homeier J, Oesker M & Boy M. 2012. Epiphytic biomass of a tropical montane forest varies with topography. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28: 23-31.

Zotz G. 2012. Epiphytic bromeliads and climate change. Die Bromelie: 105-109.



Harsch MA & Bader MY. 2011. Treeline form - a potential key to understanding treeline dynamics. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20: 582-596.

Malanson GP, Resler LM, Bader MY, Holtmeier F-K, Butler DR, Weiss DJ, Daniels LD & Fagre DB. 2011. Mountain treelines: a roadmap for research orientation. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 43: 167-177.

Meisner K & Zotz G. 2011. Three morphs, one species. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 61: 104-111.

Poltz K & Zotz G. 2011. Vascular epiphytes on isolated pasture trees along a rainfall gradient in the lowlands of Panama. Biotropica 43: 165-172.

Wanek W & Zotz G. 2011. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant 15N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. New Phytologist 192: 462-470.

Werner FA. 2011. Reduced growth and survival of vascular epiphytes on isolated remnant trees in a recent tropical montane forest clear-cut. Basic and Applied Ecology 12: 172-181.

Werner FA, Koester N, Kessler M & Gradstein SR. 2011. Is the resilience of epiphyte assemblages to human disturbance a function of local climate? Ecotropica 17: 15-20

Wester S, Mendieta-Leiva G, Nauheimer L, Wanek W, Kreft H & Zotz G. 2011 Physiological diversity and biogeography of vascular epiphytes at Río Changuinola, Panama. Flora 206: 66-79.

Wester S & Zotz G. 2011. Seed comas of bromeliads promote germination and early seedling growth by wick-like water uptake. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27: 115-119.

Yanoviak SP, Berghoff S, Linsenmair KE & Zotz G. 2011. Effects of an epiphytic orchid on arboreal ant community structure in Panama. Biotropica 43: 731-737.

Zotz G, Schmidt G & Mikona C. 2011. What is the proximate cause for size-dependent ecophysiological differences in vascular epiphytes? Plant Biology 13: 902-908.

Zotz G & Bader MY. 2011. Sampling vascular epiphyte diversity - species richness and community structure. Ecotropica 17: 103-112.

Zotz G, Wilhelm K & Becker A. 2011. Heteroblasty - a review. Botanical Review 77: 109-151.



Burns KC & Zotz G. 2010. A hierarchical framework for investigating epiphyte assemblages: networks, metacommunities and scale. Ecology 91: 377-385.

Bader MY, Zotz G & Lange O. 2010. How to minimize the sampling effort for obtaining reliable estimates of diel and annual CO2 budgets in lichens. The Lichenologist 42: 97-111.

Larrea ML & Werner FA. 2010. Response of vascular epiphyte diversity to different land-use intensities in a neotropical montane wet forest. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1950-1955.

Wester S & Zotz G. 2010. Growth and survival of Tillandsia flexuosa on electrical cables in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 26: 123-126.

Winkler U & Zotz G. 2010. "And then there were three": Highly efficient uptake of potassium by foliar trichomes of epiphytic bromeliads. Annals of Botany 106: 421-427.

Zotz G & Asshoff R. 2010. Growth in epiphytic bromeliads: response to the relative supply of phosphorus and nitrogen. Plant Biology 12: 108-113.

Zotz G, Bogusch W, Hietz P & Ketteler N. 2010. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effect of elevated CO2 and varying water and nutrient supply. Acta Oecologica 36: 659-665.



Bader MY, Menke G & Zotz G. 2009. A pronounced drought tolerance characterizes the early life stages of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia flexuosa. Functional Ecology 23: 472-479.

Monteiro JAF, Zotz G & Körner C. 2009. Tropical epiphytes in a CO2-rich atmosphere. Acta Oecologica 35: 60-68.

Moreira ASP, Filhoa JP, Zotz G & Isaias RMS. 2009. Anatomy and photosynthetic parameters of roots and leaves of two shade-adapted orchids, Dichaea cogniauxiana Shltr. and Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Flora 204: 604-611.

Winkler U & Zotz G. 2009. Highly efficient uptake of phosphorus in epiphytic bromeliads. Annals of Botany 103: 477-484.

Zotz G. 2009. Growth in the xerophytic epiphyte Tillandsia flexuosa Sw. (Bromeliaceae). Ecotropica 15: 7-12.

Zotz G & Reuter N. 2009. The effect of exposure to sea water on germination and vegetative growth of an epiphytic bromeliad. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25: 311-319.

Zotz G & Bader M. 2009. Epiphytic plants in a changing world: Global change effects on vascular and non-vascular epiphytes. Progress in Botany 70: 147-170.



Bader MY, Rietkerk M & Bregt AK. 2008. A simple spatial model exploring positive feedbacks at tropical alpine treelines. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 40: 269-278.

Bader MY & Ruijten JJA. 2008. A topography-based model of forest cover at alpine treeline in the tropical Andes. Journal of Biogeography 35: 711-723.

Di Pasquale G, Marziano M, Impagliazzo S, Lubritto C, De Natale A & Bader MY. 2008. The Holocene treeline in the northern Andes (Ecuador): first evidence from soil charcoal. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 259: 17-34.

Hágsater E, Laube S & Sanchez L. 2008. Epidendrum schistostemum. Icones Orchidacearum (Mexico) 11: t. 1177.

Zotz G & Schultz S. 2008. The vascular epiphytes of a lowland forest in Panama-species composition and spatial structure. Plant Ecology 131-141.



Bader MY, van Geloof I & Rietkerk M. 2007. High solar radiation hinders tree establishment above the alpine treeline in northern Ecuador. Plant Ecology 191: 33-45.

Bader MY, Rietkerk M & Bregt AK. 2007. Vegetation structure and temperature regimes of tropical alpine treelines. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 39: 353-364.

Laube S & Zotz G. 2007. A metapopulation approach to the analysis of long-term changes in of the epiphyte vegetation on Annona glabra. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 613-624.

Zotz G & Kahler H. 2007. A moss ´canopy´ - Small-scale differences in microclimate and physiological traits in Tortula ruralis. Flora 202: 661-666.

Zotz G. 2007. Johansson revisited: the spatial structure of epiphyte assemblages. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 123-130.

Zotz G, Tyree MT & Cochard H. 2007 Arquitectura hidráulica, relaciones hídricas y vulnerabilidad a la cavitación. In Leigh EG Jr et al. (Eds.). Ecología y evolución en los trópicos, pp. 67-76. Editora Nova Art, Panama.

Zotz G. 2007. The population structure of the vascular epiphytes in a lowland forest in Panama correlates with species abundance. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 337-342.



Asshoff R, Zotz G & Körner C. 2006. Phenological and growth response of mature temperate forest trees to four years of CO2-enrichment. Global Change Biology 12: 848-861.

Barrios H, Stuntz S, Simon U & Zotz G. 2006. Fauna de escarabajos (Insecta: Coleoptera) del dosel de árboles tropicales con diferentes especies de epífitas. Scientia  21: 33-56.

Laube S & Zotz G. 2006. Long-term changes in the epiphyte vegetation of the palm, Socratea exorrhiza. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 307-314.

Laube S & Zotz G. 2006. Neither host-specific nor random: vascular epiphytes on three tree species in a Panamanian lowland forest. Annals of Botany 97: 1103-1114.

Zotz G & Richter A. 2006. Changes in carbohydrate and nutrient contents throughout a reproductive cycle indicate that phosphorus is a limiting Nutrient in the Epiphytic bromeliad, Werauhia sanguinolenta. Annals of Botany 97: 745-754.

Zotz G & Schmidt G. 2006. Population decline in the epiphytic orchid, Aspasia principissa. Biological Conservation 129: 82-90.

Zotz G, Cueni N & Körner C. 2006. In situ growth stimulation of a temperate zone liana (Hedera helix) in elevated CO2. Functional Ecology 20: 763-769.


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