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Hendrik Wolter

Research Associate (Social Science Part)

Mail: hen+zdrik.wolter1@uolysx.dgogeyoou

phone: +49 (0)441 / 798-2983

 

Nicholas Howard

Research Associate (Natural Science Part)

Mail: nicholqoxv6as.hk6bfhowarxl7kd@uol.delav

Development of organically bred fruit varieties in commons-based initiatives (EGON)

The interdisciplinary research group EGON investigated the development of organically bred fruit varieties in commons-based initiatives from February 2017 until Juli 2020. This breeding approach is characterized by the utilization of the genetic diversity of heirloom and underutilized varieties in breeding, as well as the practical participation of a community of farmers and breeders. In EGON, studies were conducted from different perspectives in order to evaluate this breeding approach ecologically, economically, and socially.


The following major research questions were discussed:
- How can organic regional fruit farming be secured, innovative breeding concepts be developed and established, and the access to fruit cultivars be kept open?
- What are the differences of the conducted participatory organic fruit breeding approach in comparison to other breeding approaches?
- What ecological, societal, and economic impacts does the conducted participatory organic fruit breeding approach have under which conditions?
- What are the implications of the genetic diversity regarding the used cultivars in the breeding process?


The research contributions should also be transferable to other pome fruit varieties and should contribute to the discussion on sustainable orchards, agrobiodiversity, and food sovereignty.

Research Approach

The project is characterized by a close and integrated form of cooperation between agricultural and breeding actors, organizations, and scientific partners. In addition to a regular cross-disciplinary and problem-oriented exchange of knowledge between the research and practice partners, excursions, conference visits, or courses were held together at the UOL. In addition, practitioners from the organic fruit-growing and -trade were involved in the research process through transdisciplinary workshops to discuss project results in a timely manner in terms of adequacy and feasibility.


Overall, EGON follows the research approach of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. The definition and development of the research project in the preliminary phase of the project took place in close coordination and at eye level between the research and practice partners. Research contributions from the project should have a practical relevance for fruit growing and breeding. EGON was divided into three subprojects, which have been in regular exchange with each other:


(1) Applied subproject: Practical organic and participatory apple and pear cultivation by the practice partner apfel:gut e.V.
(2) Natural science subproject: Analysis and assessment of the genetic diversity of a wide and diverse range of apple varieties well used in the project of apfel:gut.
(3) Social science and economics subproject: Conceptualization, ecological-economic analysis and evaluation of the commons-based breeding approach as well as elaboration of a marketing strategy for the emerging varieties.

Background

Today, conventional apple breeding in Germany usually takes place under intensive plant protection conditions and tends to rely more and more on laboratory approaches. These often lack the focus on robustness as a breeding goal. Modern apple varieties, which have been grown globally in recent decades, come primarily from just five progenitors. This close genetic base has a negative impact on the vitality and thus on the robustness of today's most widely grown apple varieties. In addition, the market for apples is characterized by a growing short-term nature. An increasing number of varieties are regularly introduced to the market and disappears relatively quickly. Following this, apple varieties are becoming increasingly privatized by so-called club concepts, which restrict access to apple varieties for fruit growers.


These characteristics of modern conventional apple breeding and cultivation contrast with the specific needs and goals of organic apple production and sustainable development of fruit breeding. In the field of organic fruit growing, trade has argued that the fruits must be completely free of scab, which is why the pest control measures make up the bulk of crop protection measures in apple growing. Varieties that produce high-quality fruits with a minimized crop protection that is free of scab, suitable for organic farming, and meets market requirements are currently not available. Thus, with the ecologically motivated breeding of fruits begins a necessary pioneering work.


Above all, the project partners made use of the great genetic diversity of heirloom and underutilized apple and pear varieties. A focus of breeding was on the vitality and resistance to the scab causing fungus Venturia inaequalis. The resulting new varieties should be cultivated with less pesticides, be developed non-profit and consequently be usable as a common good.


Our hypothesis was that a commons-based organic breeding approach is more beneficial for the development and introduction of apple varieties for organic fruit growing than conventional breeding approaches. This breeding approach includes the use of special and robust varieties for breeding, testing in organic environments, and the treatment of seedlings and varieties as common goods. We hypothesized that this type of breeding is more beneficial for the long-term and sustainable organization of fruit production in organic fruit growing.

Research Partners

Working on the project were the coordinator Prof. Dr. Bernd Siebenhüner, chair for “Ecological Economics”, Prof. Dr. Dirk Albach, leader of the working group “Biodiversity and Evolution of Plants” and Prof. Dr. Stefanie Sievers-Glotzbach, junior professor for “Economy of Commons”. Research associate were Hendrik Wolter (working group Ecological Economics, Economy of Commons) and Nicholas P. Howard (working group Biodiversity and Evolution of Plants).

Practical Partners

The organization "apfel:gut e.V.” as well as the “Öko-Obstbau Norddeutschland” - an organization for consultation and experimentation in organic fruit farming - were responsible for the practical breeding.

Including the botanical garden of the University Oldenburg as a breeding yard for apples, the network of apple breeders was expanded by one further scientific institution. The botanical garden has been established as a location for the organic cultivation of apples in the long term and was integrate it in the existing network.

Closing Conference of the EGON Research Project

The closing conference of the EGON Research Project was held under the term "The Future of Ecological-Partizipatory Fruit Breeding".

The event took place on 14th November 2019 in the fruit breeding centre ESTEBURG - Obstbauzentrum Jork, Germany.

The event was held in the German language. Therefore, only two of the several presentations can be provided for download in the following, since they were held in English by our international participants. For more information please switch the Website's language to German.

Impressions

Publications & Presentations

Publications and presentations in the context of the EGON research project:

Publications

2020

  • Wolter, H. (2020): Influencing factors for the further expansion of organic apple cultivation and breeding. In: Ecofruit. 19th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 17-19 Februar 2020, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 19-26. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.

2019

  • Howard, N.P.; Tillman, J.; Vanderzande, S.; Luby, J.J. (2019): Genetics of zonal leaf chlorosis and genetic linkage to a major gene regulating skin anthocyanin production (MdMYB1) in the apple (Malus × domestica) cultivar Honeycrisp. PLoS ONE. Jan 28;14(1): e0210611. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210611
  • Howard, N. P.; Luby, J. J.; van de Weg, E.; Durel, C.-E.; Denancé, C.; Muranty, H.; Larsen, B.; Troggio, M.; Ristel, M.Albach, D. C. (accepted): Applications of SNP-based apple pedigree identification to regionally specific germplasm collections and breeding programs. Eucarpia.
  • Vanderzande, S.; Howard, N.P.; Cai, L.; Da Silva Linge, C.; Antanaviciute, L.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Bassil, N.; Gasic, K.; Iezzoni, A.; Van de Weg, E.; Peace, C. (2019): High-quality, genome-wide SNP genotypic data for pedigreed germplasm of the diploid outbreeding species apple, peach, and sweet cherry through a common workflow. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0210928. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210928
  • Verma, S.; Evans, K.; Guan, Y.; Luby, J.J.; Rosyara, U.R.; Howard, N.P.; Bassil, N.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; van de Weg, E.; Peace, C.P. (2019): Two large-effect QTLs, Ma and Ma3, determine genetic potential for acidity in apple fruit: breeding insights from a multi-family study. Tree Genetics & Genomes. Apr 15:18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-019-1324-y
  • Wolter, H.; Sievers-Glotzbach, S. (2019): Bridging traditional and new commons: The case of fruit breeding. International Journal of the Commons, 13(1), S. 303–328. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.869

2018

  • Howard, N. P.; Albach, D. C.; Luby, J. J. (2018): The identification of apple pedigree information on a large diverse set of apple germplasm and its application in apple breeding using new genetic tools. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 88-91. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.
  • Howard, N.P.; van de Weg, E.; Tillman, J.; Tong, C.B.; Silverstein, K.A.; Luby, J.J. (2018): Two QTL characterized for soft scald and soggy breakdown in apple (Malus × domestica) through pedigree-based analysis of a large population of interconnected families. Tree Genetics & Genomes. Feb 1;14(1):2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-017-1216-y
  • Ristel, M.; Bornemann, M.; Sattler, I. (2018): Apfel:gut - preliminary results. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 96-99. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.
  • Sievers-Glotzbach, S.; Wolter, H. (2018): Bringing Commons elements into fruit breeding. Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: In: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 19-28. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.
  • Wolter, H.; Howard, N. P.; Ristel, M.; Sievers-Glotzbach, S.; Albach, D.C.; Sattler, I.; Siebenhüner, B. (2018): Research Project EGON: Development of organically bred fruit varieties in commons-based initiatives. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 92-95. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.

Conference contributions & Presentations

2020

  • Wolter, H. (2020): Influencing factors for the further expansion of organic apple cultivation and breeding. In: Ecofruit. 19th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 17-19 Februar 2020, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 19-26. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.

2018

  • Howard, N. P.; Albach, D. C.; Luby, J. J. (2018): The identification of apple pedigree information on a large diverse set of apple germplasm and its application in apple breeding using new genetic tools. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 88-91. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.
  • Ristel, M.; Bornemann, M.; Sattler, I. (2018): Apfel:gut - preliminary results. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 96-99. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.
  • Sievers-Glotzbach, S.; Wolter, H. (2018): Bringing Commons elements into fruit breeding. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 19-28. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.
  • Wolter, H.; Howard, N. P.; Ristel, M.; Sievers-Glotzbach, S.; Albach, D.C.; Sattler, I.; Siebenhüner, B. (2018): Research Project EGON: Development of organically bred fruit varieties in commons-based initiatives. In: Ecofruit. 18th International Conference on Organic-Fruit Growing: Proceedings, 19-21 Februar 2018, Hohenheim, Deutschland. S. 92-95. Fördergemeinschaft Ökologischer Obstbau e.V. (FÖKO). Download.

Miscellaneous:

Duration

01 January 2017 – 31 December 2019 (extended until 15 Juli 2020)

Funding

The state government of Lower Saxony promoted the three-year project from the “Niedersächsisches Vorab der Volkswagenstiftung”. The research group was one out of five projects, which have been promoted by the state government to strengthen sustainable agricultural production from 2017 onwards.

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