Room: W4 0-048

Phone: +49 (0)441 798-3436

Email: gerhard.zotz(at)

Publications Gerhard Zotz

Einzmann HJR, Schickenberg N & Zotz G. 2020. Variation in root morphology of epiphytic orchids along small-scale and large-scale moisture gradients. Acta Botanica Brasilica, in press.

Gómez González DC, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2020. The role of epiphytes in rainfall interception of a tropical montane cloud forest in Panama. In: Dalling JW & Turner BL (Eds.). Fortuna Forest Reserve, Panama: interacting effects of climate and soils on the biota of a wet premontane tropical forest. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., in press.

Göbel CY, Schlumpberger BO, Zotz G. 2020. What is a pseudobulb? – Towards a quantitative definition. International Journal of Plant Science, in press.

Hoeber V, Klinghardt M, Zotz G. 2020. Drought resistance does not explain epiphytic abundance of accidental epiphytes. Plant Ecology & Diversity, in press.

Janzen T, Zotz G, Etienne RS. 2020. Community structure of vascular epiphytes: a neutral perspective. Oikos, in press.

Kattge J, Bönisch G, Díaz S, ...., Wagner K, … Zotz G & Wirth C. 2020. TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access. Global Change Biology, in press.

Mendieta Leiva G, Ramos FN, Elias JPC, Zotz G, … Einzmann HJR, Fernández M, Furtado SG, Gasper ALd, Guzmán-Jacob V, Hietz P, Irume MV, Jiménez-López DA, Kessler M, Kreft H, Krömer T, Machado GMO, Martínez-Meléndez N, Martins PLSS, Mello RdM, Mendes AF, Neto LM, Mortara SR, Nardy C, Oliveira RdP, Pereira ACA, Pillaca L, Quaresma AC, Rodríguez Quiel C, Medina ES, Taylor A, Vega MS, Wagner K, Werneck MS, Werner FA, Wolf JHD, Zartman CE, Zuleta D, Jímenez-Alfaro B. 2020. EpIG-DB: A database of vascular epiphyte assemblages. Journal of Vegetation Science in press.

Wagner K & Zotz G. 2020. Including dynamics in the equation: Tree growth rates and host specificity of vascular epiphytes. Journal of Ecology, in press.

Zotz G, Kappert N, Müller L-LB & Wagner K. 2020. Temperature dependence of germination and growth in Anthurium (Araceae). Plant Biology, in press.

Guzmán-Jacob V, Zotz G, Craven D, Taylor A, Krömer T, Monge-González ML & Kreft H. 2020. Effects of forest-use intensity on vascular epiphyte diversity along an elevational gradient. Diversity and Distributions, 26: 4-15.

Zotz G, Leja M, Aguilar-Cruz Y & Einzmann HJR. 2020. How much water is in the tank? An allometric analysis with 205 bromeliad species. Flora, 264: 151557.


Joca TAC, Coelho de Oliveira D, Zotz G, Cardoso JCF & Moreira ASP. 2019. Chemical composition of cell walls in velamentous roots of epiphytic Orchidaceae. Protoplasma, in press.

Chávez Sahagún E, Andrade JL, Zotz G & Reyes-García C. 2019. Dew can prolong photosynthesis and water status during drought in some epiphytic bromeliads from a seasonally dry tropical forest. Tropical Conservation Science, 12: 1-11.

Hoeber V, Weichgrebe T & Zotz G. 2019. Accidental epiphytism in the Harz Mountains, Central Europe. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4: 765-775.

Müller L-LB, Zotz G & Albach D. 2019. Bromeliaceae subfamilies show divergent trends of genome size evolution. Scientific Reports, 9: 5136.

Spruch L, Hellwig J, Zotz G & Blasius B. 2019. Modelling community assembly on growing habitat “islands”: A case study on trees and their vascular epiphyte communities. Theoretical Ecology, 12: 513–529.

Taylor A, Weigelt P, König C, Zotz G & Kreft H. 2019. Island disharmony revisited using orchids as a model group. New Phytologist, 223: 597-606.


Alkarawi HH, Al-Musaifer MA & Zotz G. 2018. Phytate in seeds of wild plants. Flora, 244-245: 15-18.

Bader MY, Loranger H, Zotz G & Mendieta Leiva G. 2018. Responses of tree seedlings near alpine treeline to delayed snowmelt and reduced sky exposure. Forests, 9: 12.

Chilpa-Galván N, Márquez J, Zotz G, Machado IE, Andrade JL & Reyes-García C. 2018. Seed traits favoring dispersal and establishment of six epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) species. Seed Science Research, 28: 349-359.

Müller L-LB, Albach D & Zotz G. 2018. Growth responses to elevated temperatures and the importance of ontogenetic niche shifts in Bromeliaceae. New Phytologist, 217: 127–139.

Redelstein R, Zotz G & Balke T. 2018. Seedling stability in anoxic and waterlogged sediments: an experiment with salt marsh plants. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 590: 95–108.

Schellenberger-Costa D, Zotz G, Hemp A & Kleyer M. 2018. Trait patterns of epiphytes compared to other plant life forms along a tropical elevation gradient. Functional Ecology 32: 2073–2084.

Thomsen MS, Altieri AH, Angelini C, Bishop MJ, Gribben PE, Lear G, He Q, Schiel DR, Silliman BR, South PM, Watson DM, Wernberg T & Zotz G. 2018. Secondary foundation species enhance biodiversity. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2: 634–39.

Wagner K & Zotz G. 2018. Epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effect of elevated CO2 and varying water supply on growth and nutrient relations. Plant Biology, 20: 636–640.


Arruda T, Oliveira D, Zotz G, Winkler U & Moreira ASP. 2017. The velamen of epiphytic orchids: variation in structure and correlations with nutrient absorption. Flora, 230: 66-74.

Beyschlag J & Zotz G. 2017. Heteroblasty in epiphytic bromeliads – The functional implications for species in understory and exposed growing sites. Annals of Botany, 120: 681-692.

Chilpa-Galván N, Zotz G, Sánchez-Fuente G, Espadas-Manrique C, Andrade JL & Reyes-García C. 2017. Drought, post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of epiphytic bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.). Biotropica, 49: 770-773.

Einzmann HJR & Zotz G. 2017. Dispersal and establishment of vascular epiphytes in human-modified landscapes. AoB Plants, 9: plx052.

Einzmann HJR & Zotz G. 2017.  "No signs of saturation": long-term dynamics of vascular epiphyte communities in a human-modified landscape. Biodiversity and Conservation, 26:1393-1410.

García MC, Cavieres LA, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2017. Commensals or competitors? – Insights from reserve allocation and growth in the foundation species Laretia acaulis. Oecologia, 183: 997-1006.

Gómez González DC, Rodríguez Quiel C, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2017. Species richness and biomass of epiphytic vegetation in a tropical montane forest in western Panama. Tropical Conservation Science, 10: 1-17.

Loranger H, Zotz G & Bader MY. 2017. Competitor or facilitator? The ambiguous role of alpine grassland for the early establishment of tree seedlings at treeline. Oikos, 126: 1625-1636.

Müller L-LB, Albach D, Zotz G. 2017. 'Are 3 °C too much?': thermal niche breadth in Bromeliaceae and global warming. Journal of Ecology 105: 507-516.

Zotz G. 2017. Growth of Rhizocarpon geographicum in the summit region of Volcan Barú, Panama. Lichenologist, 49: 535-538.

Zotz G, Schickenberg N & Albach D. 2017. The velamen radicum is common among terrestrial monocotyledons. Annals of Botany, 120: 625–632.


Einzmann HJR, Döcke L & Zotz G. 2016. Epiphytes in human settlements in rural Panama. Plant Ecology & Diversity 9: 277–287.

Einzmann HJR & Zotz G. 2016. How diverse are epiphyte assemblages in plantations and secondary forests in tropical lowlands? Tropical Conservation Science 9: 629-647.

Loranger H, Zotz G & Bader M. 2016. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions. AoB Plants plw053.

Petter G, Wagner K, Zotz G, Cabral JS, Wanek W, Sanchez Delgado EJ & Kreft H. 2016. Functional leaf traits of vascular epiphytes: vertical trends within the forest, intra- and interspecific trait variability, and taxonomic signals. Functional Ecology 30: 188-198.

Taylor A, Saldaña A, Zotz G, Kirby C, Díaz I & Burns K. 2016. Composition patterns and network structure of epiphyte - host interactions in Chilean and New Zealand temperate forests. New Zealand Journal of Botany 54: 204-222.

Silva JT da, Jin X, Dobránszki J, Lu J, Wang H, Zotz G, Cardoso JC & Zeng S. 2016. Advances in Dendrobium molecular research: applications in genetic variation, identification and breeding. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 95: 196–216.

Zotz G. 2016. Plants on Plants. The Biology of Vascular Epiphytes, Berlin Heidelberg New York, Springer.

Zotz G, Beyschlag J. 2016. Wie verbreitet ist Heteroblastie bei Bromelien? Die Bromelie: 74-77.

Zotz G, Weichgrebe T, Happatz H & Einzmann HJR. 2016. Measuring the terminal velocity of tiny diaspores. Seed Science Research 26: 222-230.

Zotz G & Traunspurger W. 2016. What´s in the tank? Nematodes and other major components of the meiofauna of bromeliad phytotelms in lowland Panama. BMC Ecology 16: 9.


Manzano ED, Andrade JL, García-Mendoza E, Zotz G & Reyes-Garcia C. 2015. Photoprotection related to xanthophyll cycle pigments in epiphytic orchids acclimated at different light microenvironments in two tropical dry forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Planta 242: 1425-1438.

Cabral JS, Petter G, Mendieta Leiva G, Wagner K, Zotz G & Kreft H. 2015. Branchfall as a demographic filter for epiphyte communities: Lessons from forest floor-based sampling. PLoS One 10, e0128019.

Einzmann HJR, Beyschlag J, Hofhansl F, Wanek W & Zotz G. 2015. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level. AoB Plants 7: plu073.

Mendieta Leiva G & Zotz G. 2015. A conceptual framework for the analysis of vascular epiphyte assemblages. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 17: 510-521.

Wagner K, Mendieta-Leiva G & Zotz G. 2015. Host specificity in vascular epiphytes: a review of methodology, empirical evidence and potential mechanisms. AoB PLANTS,

Zotz G & Beyschlag J. 2015. How common is heteroblasty in Bromeliaceae? A plea for help in finding the answer. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 65: 186-191.


Bader M, Loranger H & Zotz G. 2014. A cool experimental approach to explain elevational treelines. But can it explain them? American Journal of Botany 101: 1403-1408.

Correa S & Zotz G. 2014. The influence of collecting date, temperature and moisture regimes on the germination of epiphytic bromeliads. Seed Science Research 24: 353–363.

Hadi Alkarawi H & Zotz G. 2014. Phytic acid in green leaves of herbaceous plants – Temporal variation in situ and response to different N/P fertilizing regimes. AoB Plants 6: plu048.

Hadi Alkarawi H & Zotz G. 2014. Phytic acid in green leaves. Plant Biology 16: 697-701.

Manzano ED, Andrade JL, Zotz G & Reyes-García C. 2014. Respuestas fisiológicas a la sequía de cinco especies de orquídeas epífitas en dos selvas secas de la península de Yucatán. Botanical Sciences 92: 607-616.

Manzano ED, Andrade JL, Zotz G & Reyes-García C. 2014. Epiphytic orchids in tropical dry forests of Yucatan, Mexico – Species occurrence, abundance and correlations with host tree characteristics and environmental conditions. Flora, 209: 100–109.  

Quezada IM, Zotz G & Gianoli E. 2014. Latitudinal variation in the degree of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Puya chilensis. Plant Biology 16: 848-852.

Wagner S, Bader MY & Zotz G. 2014. Physiological Ecology of Tropical Bryophytes. In: Hanson DT & Rice SK (Eds), Photosynthesis of Bryophytes and Early Land Plants. Springer: 269-289.

Wagner S, Zotz G & Bader M. 2014. The temperature acclimation potential of tropical bryophytes. Plant Biology 16: 117-124. Media coverage.

Zotz G, Mendieta Leiva G & Wagner K. 2014. Vascular epiphytes at the treeline – composition of species assemblages and population biology. Flora, 209: 385-390.


Bader MY, Reich T, Wagner S, González González AS & Zotz G. 2013. Differences in desiccation tolerance do not explain altitudinal distribution patterns of tropical bryophytes. Journal of Bryology 35: 47-56.

Kotowska MM & Werner, FA. 2013. Environmental controls over methane emissions from bromeliad phytotelmata: The role of phosphorus and nitrogen availability, temperature, and water content. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27: 1186-1193.

Meisner K & Zotz G. 2013. Heteroblasty in bromeliads - Anatomical, morphological and physiological changes in ontogeny are not related to the change from atmospheric to tank form. Functional Plant Biology 40: 251-262.

Wagner K, Bogusch W & Zotz G. 2013. The role of the regeneration niche for the vertical stratification of vascular epiphytes. Journal of Tropical Ecology 29: 277-290.

Wagner S, Zotz G, Salazar Allen N & Bader MY. 2013. Altitudinal changes in temperature responses of net photosynthesis and dark respiration in tropical bryophytes. Annals of Botany 111: 455-465.

Zotz G & Winkler U. 2013. Aerial roots of epiphytic orchids: The velamen radicum and its role in water and nutrient uptake. Oecologia 171: 733-741.

Zotz G. 2013. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes - a critical update. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 171: 453-481.

Zotz G. 2013. "Hemiepiphyte" - a confusing term and its history. Annals of Botany 111: 1015-1020.

Zotz G. 2013. A longer story than expected- Seeds of seven species (Tillandsioideae) remain viable for up to two years. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 63: 83-86.


Gegenbauer C, Meyer V, Zotz G & Richter A. 2012. Uptake of ant-derived nitrogen in the myrmecophytic orchid Caularthron bilamellatum. Annals of Botany 110: 757-765.

Meisner K & Zotz G. 2012. Heteroblasty in bromeliads - Its frequency in a local flora and the timing of the transition from atmospheric to tank form in the field. International Journal of Plant Sciences 173: 780-788.

Zotz G. 2012. Epiphytic bromeliads and climate change. Die Bromelie: 105-109.


Meisner K & Zotz G. 2011. Three morphs, one species. Journal of the Bromeliad Society 61: 104-111.

Poltz K & Zotz G. 2011. Vascular epiphytes on isolated pasture trees along a rainfall gradient in the lowlands of Panama. Biotropica 43: 165-172.

Wanek W & Zotz G. 2011. Are vascular epiphytes nitrogen or phosphorus limited? A study of plant 15N fractionation and foliar N : P stoichiometry with the tank bromeliad Vriesea sanguinolenta. New Phytologist 192: 462-470.

Wester S, Mendieta-Leiva G, Nauheimer L, Wanek W, Kreft H & Zotz G. 2011 Physiological diversity and biogeography of vascular epiphytes at Río Changuinola, Panama. Flora 206: 66-79.

Wester S & Zotz G. 2011. Seed comas of bromeliads promote germination and early seedling growth by wick-like water uptake. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27: 115-119.

Yanoviak SP, Berghoff S, Linsenmair KE & Zotz G. 2011. Effects of an epiphytic orchid on arboreal ant community structure in Panama. Biotropica 43: 731-737.

Zotz G, Schmidt G & Mikona C. 2011. What is the proximate cause for size-dependent ecophysiological differences in vascular epiphytes? Plant Biology 13: 902-908.

Zotz G & Bader MY. 2011. Sampling vascular epiphyte diversity - species richness and community structure. Ecotropica 17: 103-112.

Zotz G, Wilhelm K & Becker A. 2011. Heteroblasty - a review. Botanical Review 77: 109-151.


Burns KC & Zotz G. 2010. A hierarchical framework for investigating epiphyte assemblages: networks, metacommunities and scale. Ecology 91: 377-385.

Bader MY, Zotz G & Lange O. 2010. How to minimize the sampling effort for obtaining reliable estimates of diel and annual CO2 budgets in lichens. The Lichenologist 42: 97-111.

Wester S & Zotz G. 2010. Growth and survival of Tillandsia flexuosa on electrical cables in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 26: 123-126.

Winkler U & Zotz G. 2010. "And then there were three": Highly efficient uptake of potassium by foliar trichomes of epiphytic bromeliads. Annals of Botany 106: 421-427.

Zotz G & Asshoff R. 2010. Growth in epiphytic bromeliads: response to the relative supply of phosphorus and nitrogen. Plant Biology 12: 108-113.

Zotz G, Bogusch W, Hietz P & Ketteler N. 2010. Growth of epiphytic bromeliads in a changing world: The effect of elevated CO2 and varying water and nutrient supply. Acta Oecologica 36: 659-665.


Bader MY, Menke G & Zotz G. 2009. A pronounced drought tolerance characterizes the early life stages of the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia flexuosa. Functional Ecology 23: 472-479.

Monteiro JAF, Zotz G & Körner C. 2009. Tropical epiphytes in a CO2-rich atmosphere. Acta Oecologica 35: 60-68.

Moreira ASP, Filhoa JP, Zotz G & Isaias RMS. 2009. Anatomy and photosynthetic parameters of roots and leaves of two shade-adapted orchids, Dichaea cogniauxiana Shltr. and Epidendrum secundum Jacq. Flora 204: 604-611.

Winkler U & Zotz G. 2009. Highly efficient uptake of phosphorus in epiphytic bromeliads. Annals of Botany 103: 477-484.

Zotz G. 2009. Growth in the xerophytic epiphyte Tillandsia flexuosa Sw. (Bromeliaceae). Ecotropica 15: 7-12.

Zotz G & Reuter N. 2009. The effect of exposure to sea water on germination and vegetative growth of an epiphytic bromeliad. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25: 311-319.

Zotz G & Bader M. 2009. Epiphytic plants in a changing world: Global change effects on vascular and non-vascular epiphytes. Progress in Botany 70: 147-170.


Zotz G & Schultz S. 2008. The vascular epiphytes of a lowland forest in Panama-species composition and spatial structure. Plant Ecology 131-141.


Laube S & Zotz G. 2007. A metapopulation approach to the analysis of long-term changes in of the epiphyte vegetation on Annona glabra. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 613-624.

Zotz G & Kahler H. 2007. A moss ´canopy´ - Small-scale differences in microclimate and physiological traits in Tortula ruralis. Flora 202: 661-666.

Zotz G. 2007. Johansson revisited: the spatial structure of epiphyte assemblages. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 123-130.

Zotz G, Tyree MT & Cochard H. 2007 Arquitectura hidráulica, relaciones hídricas y vulnerabilidad a la cavitación. In Leigh EG Jr et al. (Eds.). Ecología y evolución en los trópicos, pp. 67-76. Editora Nova Art, Panama.

Zotz G. 2007. The population structure of the vascular epiphytes in a lowland forest in Panama correlates with species abundance. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23: 337-342.


Asshoff R, Zotz G & Körner C. 2006. Phenological and growth response of mature temperate forest trees to four years of CO2-enrichment. Global Change Biology 12: 848-861.

Barrios H, Stuntz S, Simon U & Zotz G. 2006. Fauna de escarabajos (Insecta: Coleoptera) del dosel de árboles tropicales con diferentes especies de epífitas. Scientia  21: 33-56.

Laube S & Zotz G. 2006. Long-term changes in the epiphyte vegetation of the palm, Socratea exorrhiza. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 307-314.

Laube S & Zotz G. 2006. Neither host-specific nor random: vascular epiphytes on three tree species in a Panamanian lowland forest. Annals of Botany 97: 1103-1114.

Zotz G & Richter A. 2006. Changes in carbohydrate and nutrient contents throughout a reproductive cycle indicate that phosphorus is a limiting Nutrient in the Epiphytic bromeliad, Werauhia sanguinolenta. Annals of Botany 97: 745-754.

Zotz G & Schmidt G. 2006. Population decline in the epiphytic orchid, Aspasia principissa. Biological Conservation 129: 82-90.

Zotz G, Cueni N & Körner C. 2006. In situ growth stimulation of a temperate zone liana (Hedera helix) in elevated CO2. Functional Ecology 20: 763-769.


Körner C, Asshoff R, Bignucolo O, Hättenschwiler S, Keel S, Peláez-Riedl S, Pepin S, Siegwolf R & Zotz G. 2005. Carbon flux and growth in mature deciduous forest trees exposed to elevated CO2. Science 309: 1360-1362.

Leuzinger S, Zotz G, Asshoff R & Körner C. 2005. Responses of deciduous forest trees to severe drought in Central Europe. Tree Physiology 25: 641-650.

Zotz G. 2005. Differences in vital demographic rates in three populations of the epiphytic bromeliad, Werauhia sanguinolenta. Acta Oecologica 28: 306-312.

Zotz G. 2005. Vascular epiphytes in the temperate zones - a review. Plant Ecology 176: 173-183.

Zotz G & Laube S. 2005. Tank function in the epiphytic bromeliad, Catopsis sessiliflora. Ecotropica 11: 63-68.

Zotz G, Laube S & Schmidt G. 2005. Long-term population dynamics of the epiphytic bromeliad, Werauhia sanguinolenta. Ecography 28: 806-814.

Zotz G, Pepin S & Körner C. 2005. No down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis in mature forest trees after three years of exposure to elevated CO2. Plant Biology 7: 369-374.


Andrade JL, Graham EA & Zotz G. 2004. Determinantes morfofisiológicos y ambientales de la distribución de epífitas en el dosel de bosques. In Cabrera HM (Ed.). Fisiología Ecológica en Plantas, pp. 139-156. Ediciones Universitarias de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

Lange OL, Büdel B, Meyer A, Zellner H & Zotz G. 2004. Lichen carbon gain under tropical conditions: water relations and CO2 exchange of Lobariaceae species of a lower montane rain forest in Panama. Lichenologist 36: 329-342.

Meyer CFJ & Zotz G. 2004. Does growth and survival of aerial roots limit the vertical distribution of hemiepiphytic aroids? Biotropica 36: 483-491.

Zotz G. 2004. Growth and survival of the early stages of the heteroblastic bromeliad, Vriesea sanguinolenta. Ecotropica 10: 51-57.

Zotz G. 2004. How prevalent is crassulacean acid metabolism among vascular epiphytes? Oecologia 138: 184-192.

Zotz G. 2004. Long-term observation of the population dynamics of vascular epiphytes. In Breckle SW, Schweizer B & Fangmeier A (Eds.). Ergebnisse weltweiter ökologischer Forschung - Results of worldwide ecological studies, pp. 119-127. Verlag Günter Heimbach, Stuttgart.

Zotz G. 2004. The resorption of phosphorus is greater than that of nitrogen in senescing leaves of vascular epiphytes from lowland Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20: 693-696.

Zotz G, Enslin A, Hartung W & Ziegler H. 2004. Physiological and anatomical changes during the early ontogeny of the heteroblastic bromeliad, Vriesea sanguinolenta, do not concur with the morphological change from atmospheric to tank form. Plant, Cell and Environment 27: 1341-1350.


Körner C & Zotz G. 2003. Cranes in temperate forests: Basel, Switzerland. In Basset Y, Horlyck V & Wright SJ (Eds.). Studying forest canopies from above: The International Canopy Crane Network, pp. 67-70. United Nations Environmental Programme.

Laube S & Zotz G. 2003. Which abiotic factors limit vegetative growth in a vascular epiphyte? Functional Ecology 17: 598-604.

Stuntz S, Linder C, Linsenmair KE, Simon U & Zotz G. 2003. Do non-myrmecophilic epiphytes influence the community structure of arboreal ants? Basic and Applied Ecology 4: 363-373.

Stuntz S, Simon U & Zotz G. 2003. Arthropod seasonality in tree crowns with different epiphyte loads. In Basset Y, Kitching RL, Miller SE & Novotny V (Eds.). Arthropods of tropical forests. Spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy, pp. 176-188. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Wright SJ, Horlyck V, Basset Y, Barrios H, Bethancourt A, Bohlman SA, Gilbert GS, Goldstein G, Graham EA, Kitajima K, Lerdau MT, Meinzer FC, Ødegaard F, Reynolds DR, Roubik DW, Sakai S, Samaniego M, Sparks JP, Van Bael S, Winter K & Zotz G. 2003. Tropical canopy biology program, Republic of Panama. In Basset Y, Horlyck V & Wright SJ (Eds.). Studying forest canopies from above: The International Canopy Crane Network, pp. 137-155. United Nations Environmental Programme

Zotz G. 2003. Vascular epiphytes in the temperate zone - a bibliography. Selbyana 24: 206-214.

Zotz G & List C. 2003. Zufallsepiphyten - Pflanzen auf dem Weg nach oben? Bauhinia 17: 25-37.

Zotz G & Mikona C. 2003. Photosynthetic induction and leaf carbon gain in the tropical understorey epiphyte, Aspasia principisa. Annals of Botany 91: 353-359.

Zotz G & Schleicher T. 2003. Growth and survival of the foliose lichen Parmotrema endosulphureum in the lowland tropics of Panama. Ecotropica 9: 39-44.

Zotz G & Vollrath B. 2003. The epiphyte vegetation of the palm, Socratea exorrhiza - correlations with tree size, tree age, and bryophyte cover. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 81-90.

Zotz G, Schultz S & Rottenberger S. 2003. Are tropical lowlands a marginal habitat for macrolichens? A field study with Parmotrema endosulphureum in Panama. Flora 198: 71-77.

Zotz G, Vollrath B & Schmidt G. 2003. Carbon relations of fruits of epiphytic orchids. Flora 198: 98-105.


Krell F-T, Simon U & Zotz G. 2002. Cetoniinae developing in living stalk of Bromeliaceae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini). Coleopterists Bulletin 56: 533-539.

Schmidt G & Zotz G. 2002. Inherently slow growth in two Caribbean epiphytic species: A demographic approach. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 527-534.

Stuntz S, Simon U & Zotz G. 2002. Rainforest airconditioning: the moderating influence of epiphytes on the microclimate in tropical tree crowns. International Journal of Biometeorology 46: 53-59.

Stuntz S, Ziegler C, Simon U & Zotz G. 2002. Diversity and structure of the arthropod fauna within three canopy epiphyte species in Central Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 18: 161-176.

Zotz G. 2002. Categories and CAM - blurring divisions, increasing understanding? New Phytologist 156: 4-6.

Zotz G. 2002. Gefässepiphyten in temperaten Wäldern. Bauhinia 16: 13-22.

Zotz G & Andrade JL. 2002. La ecología y la fisiología de las epífitas y las hemiepífitas. In Guariguata MR & Kattan GH (Eds.). Ecología y Conservación de Bosques Neotropicales, pp. 271-296. Libro Universitario Regional del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

Zotz G & Vollrath B. 2002. Substrate preferences of epiphytic bromeliads: an experimental approach. Acta Oecologica 23: 99-102.

Zotz G, Reichling P & Valladares F. 2002. A simulation study on the importance of size-related changes in leaf morphology and physiology for carbon gain of an epiphytic bromeliad. Annals of Botany 90: 437-443.


Kolb C, Käser M, Kopecky J, Zotz G, Riederer M & Pfündel E. 2001. Effects of natural intensities of visible and UV radiation on epidermal UV-screening and photosynthesis in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Silvaner). Plant Physiology 127: 863-875.

Schmidt G & Zotz G. 2001. Ecophysiological consequences of differences in plant size - in situ carbon gain and water relations of the epiphytic bromeliad, Vriesea sanguinolenta. Plant, Cell and Environment 24: 101-112.

Schmidt G, Stuntz S & Zotz G. 2001. Plant size - an ignored parameter in epiphyte ecophysiology. Plant Ecology 153: 65-72.

Stuntz S & Zotz G. 2001. Photosynthesis in vascular epiphytes - a survey of 27 species of diverse taxonomic origin. Flora 196: 132-141.

Zotz G. 2001. The relationship between maximum in situ rates of CO2 gas exchange and leaf carbon budgets in tropical gap plants of the genus Macaranga. Flora 196: 364-369.

Zotz G & Hietz P. 2001. The ecophysiology of vascular epiphytes: current knowledge, open questions. Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 2067-2078.

Zotz G & Rottenberger S. 2001. Seasonal changes in diel CO2 gas exchange of three Central European cushion mosses: a one-year in situ study. Plant Biology 3: 661-669.

Zotz G, Hietz P & Schmidt G. 2001. Small plants, large plants - the importance of plant size for the physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes. Journal of Experimental Botany 52: 2051-2056.

Zotz G, Thomas V & Hartung W. 2001. Ecophysiological consequences of differences in plant size: abscisic acid (ABA) relations in the epiphytic orchid, Dimerandra emarginata. Oecologia 129: 179-185.


Bringmann G, Ochse M, Zotz G, Peters K, Peters E-M & Schlauer J. 2000. Isolation of 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-(1`-a-rhamnoside) from Vriesea sanguinolenta Cogn. & Marchal (Bromeliaceae). Phytochemistry 53: 965-969.

Büdel B, Meyer A, Salazar N, Zellner H, Zotz G & Lange OL. 2000. Macrolichens of montane rain forests in Panama, Province Chiriquí. Lichenologist 32: 539-551.

Helbsing S, Riederer M & Zotz G. 2000. Cuticles of vascular epiphytes: efficient barriers for water loss after stomatal closure? Annals of Botany 86: 765-769.

Lange OL, Büdel B, Meyer A, Zellner H & Zotz G. 2000. Lichen carbon gain under tropical conditions: water relations and CO2 exchange of three Leptogium species of a lower montane rain forest in Panama. Flora 195: 172-190.

Schmidt G & Zotz G. 2000. Herbivory in the epiphyte, Vriesea sanguinolenta Cogn. & Marchal (Bromeliaceae). Journal of Tropical Ecology 16: 829-839.

Zotz G. 2000. Size dependence in the reproductive allocation of Dimerandra emarginata, an epiphytic orchid. Ecotropica 6: 95-98.

Zotz G. 2000. Size-related intraspecific variability in physiological traits of vascular epiphytes and its importance for plant physiological ecology. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 3: 19-28.

Zotz G & Büche M. 2000. The epiphytic filmy ferns of a tropical lowland forest - species occurrence and habitat preferences. Ecotropica 6: 203-206.

Zotz G, Franke M & Woitke M. 2000. Leaf phenology and seasonal carbon gain in the invasive plant, Bunias orientalis. Plant Biology 2: 653-658.

Zotz G, Schweikert A, Jetz W & Westerman H. 2000. Water relations and carbon gain are closely related to cushion size in the moss Grimmia pulvinata. New Phytologist 148: 59-67.


Patiño S, Gilbert GS, Zotz G & Tyree MT. 1999. Growth and survival of aerial roots of hemiepiphytes in a lower montane tropical moist forest in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15: 651-665.

Stuntz S, Simon U & Zotz G. 1999. Assessing potential influences of vascular epiphytes on arthropod diversity in tropical tree crowns. Selbyana 20: 276-283.

Zotz G. 1999. Altitudinal changes in diversity and abundance of non-vascular epiphytes in the tropics - an ecophysiological explanation. Selbyana 20: 256-260.

Zotz G. 1999. Vegetative propagation in an epiphytic orchid. Occurrence and ecological relevance. Ecotropica 5: 65-68.

Zotz G. 1999. What are backshoots good for? Seasonal changes in mineral, carbohydrate, and water content of different organs of the epiphytic orchid, Dimerandra emarginata. Annals of Botany 84: 791-798.

Zotz G & Thomas V. 1999. How much water is in the tank? Model calculations for two epiphytic bromeliads. Annals of Botany 83: 183-192.

Zotz G & Ziegler H. 1999. Size-related differences in carbon isotope discrimination in the epiphytic orchid, Dimerandra emarginata. Naturwissenschaften 86: 39-40.

Zotz G, Bermejo P & Dietz H. 1999. The epiphyte vegetation of Annona glabra on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Journal of Biogeography 26: 761-776.

Zotz G, Reichling P & Krack S. 1999. Another woody hemiepiphyte with CAM: Havetiopsis flexilis Spruce ex Planch. & Tr. (Clusiaceae). Flora 194: 215-220.


Nieder J & Zotz G. 1998. Methods of analyzing the structure and dynamics of vascular epiphyte communities. Ecotropica 4: 33-39.

Zotz G. 1998. Demography of the epiphytic orchid, Dimerandra emarginata. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14: 725-741.

Zotz G & Andrade J-L. 1998. Water relations of two co-occurring epiphytic bromeliads. Journal of Plant Physiology 152: 545-554.

Zotz G, Büdel B, Meyer A, Zellner H & Lange OL. 1998. In situ studies of water relations and CO2 exchange of the tropical macrolichen, Sticta tomentosa. New Phytologist 139: 525-535.

Zotz G, Tyree MT, Patiño S & Carlton MR. 1998. Hydraulic architecture and water use of selected species from a lower montane rainforest in Panama. Trees 12: 302-309.


Heil M, Fiala B, Linsenmair KE, Zotz G, Menke P & Maschwitz U. 1997. Food body production in Macaranga triloba (Euphorbiaceae): a plant investment in anti-herbivore defense via symbiotic ant partners. Journal of Ecology 85: 847-862.

Zotz G. 1997. Photosynthetic capacity increases with plant size. Botanica Acta 110: 306-308.

Zotz G. 1997. Substrate use of three epiphytic bromeliads. Ecography 20: 264-270.

Zotz G & Ziegler H. 1997. The occurrence of crassulacean acid metabolism among vascular epiphytes from Central Panama. New Phytologist 137: 223-229.

Zotz G, Büdel B, Meyer A, Zellner H & Lange OL. 1997. Water relations and CO2 exchange of tropical bryophytes in a lower montane rainforest in Panama. Botanica Acta 110: 9-17.

Zotz G, Patiño S & Tyree MT. 1997. CO2 gas exchange and the occurrence of CAM in tropical woody hemiepiphytes. Flora 192: 143-150.

Zotz G, Patiño S & Tyree MT. 1997. Water relations and hydraulic architecture of woody hemiepiphytes. Journal of Experimental Botany 48: 1825-1834.

Zotz G, Tyree MT & Patiño S. 1997. Hydraulic architecture and water relations of a flood-tolerant tropical tree, Annona glabra. Tree Physiology 17: 359-365.


Zotz G & Winter K. 1996. Seasonal changes in daytime versus nighttime CO2 fixation of Clusia uvitana in situ. In Winter K & Smith JAC (Eds.). Crassulacean acid metabolism. Biochemistry, ecophysiology and evolution, pp. 312-323. Springer, Berlin.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1996. Diel patterns of CO2 exchange in rainforest canopy plants. In Mulkey SS, Chazdon RL & Smith AP (Eds.). Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology, pp. 89-113. Chapman & Hall, New York.


Zotz G. 1995. How fast does an epiphyte grow? Selbyana 16: 150-154.

Zotz G, Königer M, Harris G & Winter K. 1995. High rates of photosynthesis in the tropical pioneer tree, Ficus insipida Willd. Flora 190: 265-272.


Lange OL, Büdel B, Zellner H, Zotz G & Meyer A. 1994. Field measurements of water relations and CO2 exchange of the tropical, cyanobacterial basidiolichen Dictyonema glabratum in a Panamanian rainforest. Botanica Acta 107: 279-290.

Zotz G, Tyree MT & Cochard H. 1994. Hydraulic architecture, water relations and vulnerability to cavitation of Clusia uvitana: a C3-CAM tropical hemiepiphyte. New Phytologist 127: 287-295.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1994. Predicting annual carbon balance from leaf nitrogen. Naturwissenschaften 81: 449.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1994. Photosynthesis of a tropical canopy tree, Ceiba pentandra, in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Tree Physiology 14: 1291-1301.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1994. Photosynthesis and carbon gain of the lichen, Leptogium azureum, in a lowland tropical forest. Flora 189: 179-186.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1994. A one-year study on carbon, water and nutrient relationships in a tropical C3-CAM hemiepiphyte, Clusia uvitana. New Phytologist 127: 45-60.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1994. Annual carbon balance and nitrogen use efficiency in tropical C3 and CAM epiphytes. New Phytologist 126: 481-492.


Zotz G & Winter K. 1993. Short-term regulation of crassulacean acid metabolism activity in a tropical hemiepiphyte, Clusia uvitana. Plant Physiology 102: 835-841.

Zotz G & Winter K. 1993. Short-term photosynthesis measurements predict leaf carbon balance in tropical rainforest canopy plants. Planta 191: 409-412.


Winter K, Zotz G, Baur B & Dietz K-J. 1992. Light and dark CO2 fixation in Clusia uvitana and the effects of plant water status and CO2 availability. Oecologia 91: 47-51.

Maaklrtina Jägerjwbgm (ma216vdrtinakzu.jaeltfger@uol.dche) (Changed: 2020-02-14)