# Information and Entropy

# Information and Entropy

## Entropy, a Measure of Uncertainty

## Information Content and EntropyIn information theory The formula for information entropy was introduced by Claude E. Shannon in his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication". $$ H_b(X) := E_p[I_b(X)] = - \sum_{j=1}^m p(x_j) \log_b p(x_j)$$
$$p(x_j)$$ is replaced by its is set to \(b=2\), the \(I_2(x_j)\)information content of an outcome \(x_j\) is defined to be$$h_2(x_j) = I_2(X=x_j) := \log_2 \frac{1}{p(x_j)} $$ bits (McKay, 2003, p32). $$ H_2(X) := E_p[I_2(X)] = \sum_{j=1}^m p(x_j) \log_2 \frac{1}{p(x_j)} = \sum_{j=1}^m p(x_j) (\log_2 1 - log_2 p(x_j)) $$ $$= \sum_{j=1}^m p(x_j) (0 - log_2 p(x_j)) = \sum_{j=1}^m - p(x_j) log_2 p(x_j) = -\sum_{j=1}^m p(x_j) \log_2 p(x_j), $$ where \(m\) is the number of values or realizations of The X ('random experiment' hidden from the 'interviewer'). Another verbal statement is "What is the average length of the shortest description of the random variable?" (Cover & Thomas, 2006, p.15)For a \(\textit{uniform}\) PMF $$ H_2(X) := E_p[I_2(X)] = \sum_{j=1}^m p(x) \log_2 \frac{1}{p(x)} = \frac{1}{m} \sum_{j=1}^m \log_2 m = \frac{1}{m} m \log_2 m = \log_2 m$$ We provide some examples for uniform PMFs in the following table:
The second to last example 'fair 6-sided dice' needs a more detailed explanation. Entropy and Query Strategies \(H_2(X) = log_2 6 = 2.585 \) means that after a random experiment (throw of the fair 6-sided dice) it can be a real number. To guess each outcomes of \(n\) replications of the random experiment "throw a fair die" the total number of yes/no questions needed is expected to be \(2.585 * n\). Because entropy provides us with the expected number of guesses \(H_2(X) = E[I_2(X)]\) the actual number of guesses \(L(x_i)\) falls into the interval between best and worst case:expectation$$ \min_{\rm x_i \in X} L(x_i) \leq E[I_2(X)] \leq \max_{\rm x_i \in X} L(x_i)$$ Queries can be controlled by fixed query strategies (e.g. Fig 1 - 5). The sequence of binary yes/no questions can be mapped to a binary 1/0 code word \(w\). The expected code word length\(E(length(W=w)=: E(WL)\) is greater than or equal to the entropy of the underlying distribution. We present five examples: a linear sequential (Fig 1, Fig 3) and two alternative query strategies (Figs. 2, 4, 5) all controlled by binary trees. Take for example strategy 1 (Fig. 1). To identify \(X = 1\) we need 1 question. Whereas the identification of \(X = 6\) requires 5 questions. The expected word length is \(E(|Wl)=3.333...\) bits. This is also the expected word length \(E(Wl)\) of the In the alternative strategy (Fig. 2) the expected number of questions is with \(2.666...\) bits shorter than the expectation of strategy 1. So this strategy is better than the linear strategy 1 (Fig 1). Of course both \(E(WL)\) are greater than the entropy with \(H_2(X)=2.585\) bits (second to last row in table above). In Fig 3 - Fig 5 we present query strategies for nonuniform PMFs. In Fig 3 and Fig 4 the PMF is \(P(X) = \frac{6-x}{15}\). In this PMF the probability mass is higher the lower value X has. So the linear query strategy (Fig 3) is more optimal than its alternative (Fig 4). The entropy of the PMF is \(H_2(X)= 2.149\) (Fig 3, Fig 4) and the expected word length \(E(Wl)\) of query strategy 1 (Fig. 3) is $$H_2(X)=2.149 < E(Wl) = \left(\frac{5 \cdot 1}{15}+\frac{4 \cdot 2}{15}+\frac{3 \cdot 3}{15}+\frac{2 \cdot 4}{15}+\frac{1 \cdot 5}{15}+\frac{0 \cdot 5}{15}\right) =\frac{35}{15}=2.333... \; bits.$$ The \(E(Wl)= 2.666...\) of the alternative strategy 2 (Fig 4) is higher than that of strategy 1 (Fig 3). So one can see that the optimality of the strategy depends on the underlying PMF. The last example (Fig 5) demonstrates a query strategy controlled by a binary Huffman generated tree (Abelson, Sussman, and Sussman, 1996, ch. 2.3.4, p.163). The query ranges are summarized in Fig 6. The most contrallable query strategy is in Fig 4. Here, the difference between best and worst cases is smallest between all strategies though the overall performance is second to last.
Even the knowledge about the constraint ' Query games with yes/no questions like "What's My Line?" or "Was bin ich?" have been very popular in the early days of tv. Entropy and the Multiplicity of a System An alternative view of entropy was developed by Boltzman (ca. between 1872 and 1875) in statistical physics. His formulation is $$ S = k* lnW$$ where: \(k\) is a constant and \(W\) is the \(\textit{multiplicity}\) of a system. The multiplicity of a system is a function of the relation between its macro- and micro-states of a system. A tutorial example (HyperPhysics, Georgia State University) should explain the concepts. Entropy and the Log Likelihood of i.i.d. Bernoulli Trials We consider a Bernoulli trial that is a random experiment with binary outcomes \(x \in \{0, 1\}\). This could represent the classical coin-tossing experiment (x=1 for 'head', x=0 for 'tail') or classifications (x=1 for 'class 2', x=0 for 'class 1'). The two probabilities are modelled as \(P(x=1) = p\) and \(P(x=0) = (1-p)\). The probability distribution over \(X\) can be written as $$P(X) := p^x(1-p)^{1-x} = p^{[x=1]}(1-p)^{[x=0]}$$ where '[...]' are the Iversen bracket operators. If we have a set \(D = \{x_1, ..., x_n\}\) of \(n\) independently drawn \(x_i\) we can construct the likelihood of the data set \(D\) conditional on \(p\) $$ L(D|p) := \prod_{i=1}^n p^{[x_i=1]}(1-p)^{[x_i=0]}.$$ The log-likelihood \(l(D|p)\) is $$ \log L(D|p) = l(D|p) := \log p \sum_{i=1}^n [x_i=1] + \log(1-p) \sum_{i=1}^n [x_i=0].$$ Because the maximum likelihood estimator \(p_{ML}\) of \(p\) is (Bishop, 2009, p.69) $$ p_{ML} = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n x_i $$ we can rewrite the log-likelihood as $$ l(D|p) := \log p \cdot n \cdot p_{ML} + \log(1-p) \cdot n \cdot (1- p_{ML}).$$ the $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{i=1}^n [x_i=1] = n \cdot p$$ and $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{i=1}^n [x_i=0] = n \cdot (1-p) $$ the log likelihood is $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} l(D|p) = \log p \cdot n \cdot p + \log(1-p) \cdot n \cdot (1-p).$$ Now, when we rename \(p_1 := p\) and \(p_2 := (1-p)\) the log-likelihood can be written as a compact expression $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} l(D|p) = n \sum_{j=1}^2 p_j \log p_j.$$ We see that (at least for Bernoulli distributions) \(\textit{entropy}\) is equal to the \(\textit{negative expectation of the log-likelihood}\) (here both measured in bits) $$ H_2(X) = E[l_2(D|p)] := - \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{l_2(D|p)}{n}$$ where $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} l_2(D|p) = n \sum_{j=1}^2 p_j \log_2 p_j.$$ This relation will be important, when we study cross-entropy and the cross-entropy error function. Entropy and the Log Likelihood of i.i.d. categorical trials The The probability mass function (pmf) is $$P(x=i|p) = p_i$$ or $$P(X=x) = p_1^{[x=1]} \cdot ... \cdot p_k^{[x=k]} = \prod_{j=1}^k p_j^{[x=j]}.$$ The likelihood L(D|p) is $$ L(D|p) := \prod_{i=1}^n \prod_{j=1}^k p_j^{[x_i=j]}$$ and the log-likelihood \(\log L(D|p) = l(D|p)\) $$ l(D|p) := \sum_{i=1}^n \sum_{j=1}^k [x_i=j] \log p_j.$$ The index \(i\) does not contain information so we can simplify the summation $$ l(D|p) := \sum_{j=1}^k \sum_{i=1}^n [x=j] \log p_j.$$ The inner sum over \(i\) is the frequency \(n_j\) of category \(j\) which is \(n\) times the maximum likelihood estimator \(p_{j_{ML}}\) of \(p_j\) $$ \sum_{i=1}^n [x=j] = n_j = n \cdot p_{j_{ML}}.$$ In the limit \(n_j\) is equal to \(n \cdot p_j\) $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{i=1}^n [x=j] = n_j = n \cdot p_j$$ so the log-likelihood can be further simplified to $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} l(D|p) := \lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{j=1}^k n_j \log p_j = \sum_{j=1}^k n \cdot p_j \log p_j $$ $$ = n \sum_{j=1}^k p_j \log p_j$$ Even for the categorical distribution \(\textit{entropy}\) is equal to the \(\textit{negative expectation of the log-likelihood}\) (here both measured in bits) $$ H_2(X) = E[l_2(D|p)] := - \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{l_2(D|p)}{n} = - \sum_{j=1}^k p_j \log_2 p_j$$ where $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} l_2(D|p) = n \sum_{j=1}^k p_j \log_2 p_j.$$ The relation between entropy and log-likelihood is also important, when we study cross-entropy and the cross-entropy error function.
Abelson, H., Sussman, G.J., & Sussman, Julie, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, Cambrige, MA: MIT Press, 1996, 2/e - the 'bible' of schemers, lays the foundation for functional probabilistic programming languages like CHURCH, WebCHURCH, and WebPPL ; provides a chapter on Huffman codes - Bishop, Christopher M., Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning, Heidelberg & New York: Springer, 8/e, 2009 - an early standard reference for machine learning - Dümbgen, Lutz, Stochastik für Informatiker, Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 2003 - Stochastic theory written by a mathematical statistician (unfortunately only in German) with some examples from CS (eg. entropy, coding theory, Hoeffding bounds, ...) - Fraundorf, P., Examples of Surprisal, www.umsl.edu/~fraundorfp/egsurpri.html, (2021/03/30) MacKay, David J.C., Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms, Cambridge University Press, 2003, www.inference.org.uk/itprnn/book.pdf (visited, 2018/08/22) - The view of a well respected and authorative (see e.g. Pearl, 2018, The Book of Why, p.126) physicist on early Bayesian machine learning, coding theory, and neural nets; interesting how a physicist treats stochastics - Shannon, C. E., A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 1948, 27: 379-423, 623-656. - This paper was the birth of information theory - Wikipedia, Entropy, (2021/04/08) Wikipedia, Information content, (2021/03/30) Wikipedia, Iverson bracket, (2021/04/6) Wikipedia, Was bin ich ?, (2021/03/21) Wikipedia, What's My Line ?, (2021/03/21) Wikipedia, Categorical distribution, (2021/04/07) | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

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## WebPPL Code

This code snipped should give an impression how's the look and feel of WebPPL. WebPPL is a pure functional DSL embedded in JS. The only imperative constructs are In this WebPPL-snippet lodash functions \(\textit{_.isNumber}\) and \(\textit{_.isArray}\) are used but no advanced WebPPL-inference features. Like in any other functional language there are no loops. Instead e.g. In the last three function calls we computed the entropy of three PMFs with the alphabet a-z. The first entropy is based on the assumption that the PMF is uniform. The entropy is \(E(I_2(X)=4.7 bits\). This means that it is expected that we need approximately 5 guesses to correctly identify a letter hidden from us. With the next two function calls of \(\textit{entropy}\) we computed the entropy of the english and the german alphabet's PMFs \(E(I_2(X_{english})=4.176 bits\) and \(E(I_2(X_{german})=4.064 bits\). This shows that German is better predictable than English, at least at the level of individual letters.
Wikipedia, en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Letter_frequency , (2021/03/22) Wikipedia, de.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buchstabenh%C3%A4ufigkeit, (2021/03/22) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This is a draft. Any feedback or bug report is welcome. Please contact: |

claus.moebus@uol.de |

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## Exercises

The basic WebPPL-code for the exercises can be found here as a PCM20210315_Entropy.js file. You can copy the file's content into the WebPPL-box and run the file in the browser.

1. Replace the \(\textit{reduce}\)-function call in the WebPPL-script by a call of the WebPPL-library-function \(\textit{sum}\).

2. Replace all calls the WebPPL-library-functions \(\textit{sum, reduce}\) by function calls of *selfdefined* functions.